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Chapter 1

Borderland General term for linear zone that parallels a political boundary.
Transition Zone An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join.
Physiographic Regions A region within which there prevailing substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils.
Continetality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions if worlds land masses.
Rain shadow effect The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein most air masses are forces to deposit most of their water content as they cross highlands.
Federations A country adhering to a political framework where in a central government represents subnational entities within a nation state.
Aquifer An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer.
Fossil Fuel Energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum(oil).
Urban System A hierarchical network or grouping areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
American Manufacturing Belt North America’s near-rectangle core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore.
Distribution Center A centralized focus of economic activity specializing in the distribution of goods, situated as a major hub on its regional transportation network.
Inter model Connections Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another.
Outer City The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis.
Deindustrialization Combines relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions for cheaper labor.
Central Business District (CBD) The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values.
Information economy The new, increasingly dominant, postindustrial economy that is maturing in the most highly advanced countries of North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim.
GPS(Global Positioning System) The orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information anywhere on Earths surface.
Gentrification The upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment, usually in the downtown area of a central city.
Neighbourhood effect The impact if ones neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances.
Residential Geography The spatial distribution of a residential population.
Sunbelt Warmer climate, superior recreational opportunities, and other amenities attracting large numbers of relocating people.
Migration A chance in residence intended to be permanent
Electoral Geography The spatial distribution of political preferences as expresses in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates
Melting Pot Traditional characterization of American society as a blend of numerous immigrant ethnic groups that over time we're assimilated into a single societal mainstream.
First Nations Name given Canada’s indigenous people of American descent, whose U.S. counterparts are called Native Americans.
World-City A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system.
Technopole A planned techno-industrisal complex (such as Claiformiq’s Silicon Valley) that inovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the post industrial information economy.
Pacific Rim A far-flung group if countries (extending clockwise on the map from New Zealans to Chile) sharing the following criteria: face the Pacific ocean,
Tar Sands The main source of oil from non-liquid petroleum reserves. Oil and sand mixed and extracted.
Boreal Forest The subarctic, mostly conferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lined the Arctic shore; known as the taiha in Russia.
Created by: AllisonSinger