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unit one geography

borderland general term for a linear zone that parallels a political boundary
transition zone an area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another
physiographic region a region within which there prevails substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils
continentality the variation of the continental effect on air temperature in the interior portions of the world's landmasses. the greater the distance from the moderating influence of an ocean, the greater the extereme in the summer & winter temperatures.
continentality part 2 continental interiors tend to be dry when distance from oceanic moisture sources become considerable
rain shadow effect the relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross highlands
federations a country adhering to a political framework wherein a central gov reps the various subnational entities within a nation-state where they have common interests -- defense, foreign affairs,
federations part 2 allow these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws. policies, and customs in certain spheres
aquifers an underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer
fossil fuel the energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum (oil), so named collectively because they were formed by the geologic compression and transformation of tiny plant and animal organisms
urban system a hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country
american manufacturing belt North America's near-rectangular core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore
distribution center a centralized focus of economic activity specializing in the distribution of goods, situated as a major hub on its regional transpirational network. example: Atlanta, Georgia has highway, rail, and air-freight connections around SE USA
intermodal connections facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another (e.g., the loading of containers from a ship directly onto a truck or rail car)
outer city the non-central city portion of the American metropolis; no longer "sub" to the "urb," this outer ring was transformed into a full-fledged city during the late twentieth century
deindustrialization process companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions or countries with cheaper labor, leaving the newly-deindustrialized region to convert to a service economy
deindustrialization process part two while struggling with the accompanying effects or increased unemployment and meeting the retraining needs of its workforce
central business district (CBD) the downtown heart of central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings
information economy new, increasingly, dominant, postindustrial economy maturing in highly advanced countries of North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim. Here, traditional industry is being eclipsed by a higher-tech productive complex focused on info-related activites
global position system (GPS) the orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information, anywhere on or near the Earth's surface where there is an unobstructed line of right to four or more GPS satellites
gentrification upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment, usually in the downtown area of a central city. frequently, this involves the displacement of established lower-income residents who cannot afford the heightened costs of living
gentrification part two conflicts are not uncommon as such neighborhood change takes place
neighborhood effect the impact of one's neighborhood or an individual's outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life changes
residential geography the spatial distribution of a residential population. the term is most often used by urban geographers to describe the clustering of various social groups into the neighborhoods that form the residential fabric of cities and suburbs
sunbelt popular name given to southern tier of the US, anchored by mega-States of CA, TX, and, FL. They have warmer climates, superior recreational opportunities, and other amenities that attract large numbers of people & activities since the 1960s.
migrations a change in residence intended to be permanent
electoral geography the spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates. the mapping of election results in the foundation of electoral geography
melting pot traditional characterization of American society as a blend of numerous immigrant ethnic groups that were assimilated into a single societal mainstream
melting pot part 2 this notion always had its challengers among social scientists and is increasingly difficult to sustain given the increasing complexity and sheer scale of the U.S ethnic mosaic in the 21st century
first nations name given to canada's indigenous peoples of American descent, whose U.S counterparts are called Native Americans
world-city a large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system. leading world-cities include London, New Work, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, and Paris
technopoles a planned techno-industrial complex (such as California's silicon valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy
pacific rim a far-flung group of countries and components of them sharing the following criteria: face the pacific ocean, exhibit relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, urbanization; their important and exports move across Pacific waters
tar sands main source of oil from non-liquid petroleum reserves. oil mixed with sand and requires massive open-pit mining as well as a costly process to extract it. high oil prices recently led to greatly expanded production, accompanying environmental degradation
boreal forest subarctic, coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore; known as the taiga in Russia
Created by: pl245251
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