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Introduction to drug

pharmacology the study of the biological effects of chemicals
Drugs chemicals that are introduced into the body to bring about some sort of change
adverse effects drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasant or even dangerous. EXAMPLE Adverse effect of taking Metoprolol is tiredness, shorness of breath, diarrhea
Brand Name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called a trade name
Chemical name name that reflects the chemical structure of a drug
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) federal agency responsible for the regulation and enforcement of drug evaluation and distribution policies
Generic drugs drugs sold by their generic name; not brand (or trade) name products
Generic name the original designation that a drug is given when the drug company that developed it applies for the approval process
genetic engineering process of altering DNA, usually of bacteria, to produce a chemical to be used as a drug
Orphan drug drugs that have been discovered but would not be profitable for a drug company to develop; usually drugs that would treat only a small number of people; these orphans can be adopted by drug companies to develop
over-the-counter (OTC) drugs Drugs that are available without a prescription for self-treatment of a variety of complaints; deemed to be safe when used as directed
pharmacotherapeutics clinical pharmacology—the branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs; chemicals that are used in medicine for the treatment, prevention, and diagnosis of disease in humans
teratogenic having adverse eff ects on the fetus
Sources of Drugs Drugs can come from plants, foods, animals, salts of inorganic compounds, or synthetic sources.
Drug evaluation It must undergo a series of scientific tests to evaluate its actual therapeutic and toxic effects. Before receiving final FDA approval to be marketed to the public,drugs must pass through several stages of development. These include preclinical trials
Preclinical trials involve testing of potential drugs on laboratory animals to determine their therapeutic and adverse effects.
Phase I studies test potential drugs on healthy human subjects.
Phase II studies test potential drugs on patients who have the disease the drugs are designed to treat.
Phase III studies Test drugs in the clinical setting to determine any unanticipated effects or lack of effectiveness.
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Enforces the control of drugs with abuse potencial (controlled drugs)
Created by: Lake08