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CH 14 Sigelman &Ridr

Life-Span Human Development, 9th edition: Emot/Att/Soc Rel

primary emotion One of the distinct basic emotions that emerges within the first six months of life universally (joy, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, fear).
self-conscious emotion A “secondary emotion” such as embarrassment or pride that requires an awareness of self; unlikely to emerge until about 18 months of age.
social referencing Infants’ monitoring of companions’ emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use of this information to decide how they should feel and behave.
emotion regulation The processes involved in initiating, maintaining, and altering emotional responses.
emotional competence Mastery of emotions in terms of appropriate expression of emotions, understanding of emotions and what triggers them, and ability to regulate emotions.
emotional display rules Cultural rules specifying what emotions should and should not be expressed under what circumstances (for example, “look pleased when you receive a lousy gift”).
socioemotional selectivity theory Carstensen’s notion that our needs change as we grow older and that we actively choose to narrow our range of social partners to those who can best meet our emotional needs.
positivity effect The tendency of older adults to pay more attention to, better remember, and put more priority on positive information than on negative information; see also socioemotional selectivity theory.
attachment theory The theory of close relationships developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth and grounded in ethological theory (with psychoanalytic theory and cognitive theory); it says that close emotional bonds such as parent-child attachments are biologically based and contribute to species survival.
ethology A discipline and theoretical perspective that focuses on the evolved behavior of different species in their natural environments.
attachment A strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion and is characterized by affection and a desire to maintain proximity.
imprinting An innate form of learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects (usually their mothers) during a critical period early in life.
oxytocin A hormone that plays important roles in facilitating parent-infant attachment as well as reducing anxiety and encouraging affiliation in other social relationships.
internal working model In attachment theory, cognitive representation of self and other that children construct from their interactions with caregivers and that shape their expectations about relationships.
peer A social equal; a person who functions at a level of behavioral complexity similar to that of the self, often someone of similar age.
chumship According to neo-Freudian Harry Stack Sullivan, a close friendship in childhood that provides emotional support and teaches children how to participate in intimate relationships.
bonding As distinguished from attachment, a more biologically-based process in which parent and infant form a connection through contact in the first hours after birth when both are highly alert.
synchronized routine Harmonious, dancelike interaction between infant and caregiver in which each adjusts behavior in response to that of the other.
goal-corrected partnership In Bowlby’s attachment theory, the most mature phase of attachment in which parent and child accommodate to each other’s needs and the child becomes more independent.
separation anxiety A wary or fretful reaction that infants display when separated from their attachment objects.
stranger anxiety A wary or fretful reaction that infants often display when approached by an unfamiliar person.
secure base A point of safety, represented by an infant’s attachment figure, that permits exploration of the environment.
safe haven A point of safety, represented by an infant’s attachment figure, to which the infant can return for comfort if frightened.
Strange Situation A series of mildly stressful experiences involving the departure of the parent and exposure to a stranger to which infants are exposed to determine the quality of their attachments; developed by Ainsworth.
secure attachment An infant–caregiver bond or intimate relationship in which the individual welcomes close contact, uses the attachment object as a source of comfort, and dislikes but can manage separations.
resistant attachment An insecure infant–caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by strong separation anxiety and a tendency to show ambivalent reactions to the attachment object upon reunion, seeking and yet resisting contact and not being comforted.
avoidant attachment An insecure infant caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by little separation anxiety and a tendency to avoid or ignore the attachment object upon reunion.
disorganized–disoriented attachment An insecure infant–caregiver bond, common among abused children, that combines features of the resistant and avoidant attachment styles and is characterized by the infant’s dazed response to reunion and confusion about whether to approach or avoid the caregiver.
contact comfort The pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a parent or a soft, terry cloth mother substitute; believed to foster attachments in infant monkeys and possibly humans.
pretend play Symbolic play in which one actor, object, or action symbolizes or stands for another.
social pretend play A form of play that involves both cooperation with playmates and pretend or symbolic activity.
sociometric techniques Methods for determining who is well liked and popular and who is disliked or neglected in a group.
sociometric popularity Being liked by many peers and disliked by few. Contrast with perceived popularity.
perceived popularity Perceived status, power, and visibility in the peer group, as distinct from likeability. Contrast with sociometric popularity.
relational aggression Subtle and indirect aggression that involves gossiping about and ignoring or excluding others.
clique A small friendship group that interacts frequently. See crowd.
crowd A network of heterosexual cliques that forms during adolescence and facilitates mixed-sex social activities. See clique.
peer selection versus peer socialization issue Issue in the study of peer influence asking whether adolescents resemble their peers because they select similar others as friends or because their friends socialize them in certain directions.
homogamy Basis for mate selection centered on similarity between partners in demographic and personal characteristics. Contrast with complementarity.
complementarity Basis for mate selection in which people choose partners who are different from them but have strengths that compensate for their weaknesses or otherwise complement their own characteristics. Contrast with homogamy.
triangular theory of love Robert Sternberg’s model describing types of love in terms of three components: passion, intimacy, and commitment.
consummate love In Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, love with high levels of all three components of love: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment.
companionate love In Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, affectionate love characterized by high intimacy and commitment but low passion.
confidant A spouse, relative, or friend to whom a person feels emotionally close and with whom that person can share thoughts and feelings.
Created by: eduktd
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