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CH 11 Sigelman &Ridr

Life-Span Human Development, 9th edition: Self & Personality

personality The organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors that is unique to each individual.
dispositional traits Relatively enduring dimensions or qualities of personality along which people differ (for example, extraversion, aloofness).
characteristic adaptations Compared to traits, more situation-specific and changeable aspects of personality; ways in which people adapt to their roles and environments, including motives, goals, plans, schemas, self-conceptions, stage-specific concerns, and coping mechanisms.
narrative identities Unique and integrative “life stories” that we construct about our pasts and futures to give ourselves an identity and our lives meaning; an aspect of personality.
self-concept People’s perceptions of their unique attributes or traits.
self-esteem People’s overall evaluation of their worth as based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept.
identity A self-definition or sense of who one is, where one is going, and how one fits into society.
Big Five The five major dimensions used to characterize people’s personalities: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
self-recognition The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph, which occurs in most infants by 18 to 24 months of age.
categorical self A person’s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex.
individualistic culture A culture in which individuals define themselves as individuals and put their own goals ahead of their group’s goals and in which children are socialized to be independent and self-reliant. Contrast with collectivist culture.
collectivist culture A culture in which people define themselves in terms of group memberships, give group goals higher priority than personal goals, and socialize children to seek group harmony. Contrast with individualistic culture.
temperament A genetically based pattern of tendencies to respond in predictable ways; building blocks of personality.
easy temperament Characteristic mode of response in which the individual is even-tempered, content, and open and adaptable to new experiences. Contrast with difficult temperament and slow-to-warm-up temperament.
difficult temperament Characteristic mode of response in which the individual is irregular in habits and adapts slowly, often with vigorous protest, to changes in routine or new experiences. Contrast with easy temperament and slow-to-warm-up temperament.
slow-to-warm-up temperament A characteristic mode of response in which the individual is relatively inactive and moody and displays mild resistance to new routines and experiences but gradually adapts. Contrast with easy temperament and difficult temperament.
surgency/extraversion Dimension of temperament that involves the tendency to actively and energetically approach new experiences in an emotionally positive way (rather than to be inhibited and withdrawn). See negative affectivity and effortful control.
negative affectivity Dimension of temperament that concerns the tendency to be sad, fearful, easily frustrated, and irritable (as opposed to laid back and adaptable). See also effortful control and surgency/extraversion.
effortful control Dimension of temperament pertaining to being able to sustain attention, control one’s behavior, and regulate one’s emotions (as opposed to unable to regulate one’s arousal and stay calm and focused). See also negative affectivity and surgency/extraversion.
goodness of fit The extent to which the child’s temperament and the demands of the child’s social environment are compatible or mesh, according to Thomas and Chess; more generally, a good match between person and environment.
social comparison The process of defining and evaluating the self through comparisons with other people.
ideal self Idealized expectations of what one’s attributes and personality should be like.
identity versus role confusion The psychosocial conflict in which adolescents must form a coherent self-definition or remain confused about their life directions; fifth of Erikson’s stages.
moratorium period A period of time in high school or college when young adults are relatively free of responsibilities and can experiment with different roles to find their identities.
diffusion status Identity status characterizing individuals who have not questioned who they are and have not committed themselves to an identity.
foreclosure status An identity status characterizing individuals who appear to have committed themselves to a life direction but who have adopted an identity prematurely, without much thought.
moratorium status Identity status characterizing individuals who are experiencing an identity crisis or actively exploring identity issues but who have not yet achieved an identity.
identity achievement status An identity status characterizing individuals who have carefully thought through identity issues and made commitments or resolved their identity issues.
ethnic identity A sense of personal identification with the individual’s ethnic group and its values and cultural traditions.
person-environment fit The match between the individual’s personality and environment (for example, work environment); similar to goodness of fit between temperament and environment.
ageism Prejudice and discrimination against elderly people.
self-stereotyping Applying stereotypes of one’s group (for example, negative stereotypes of older adults) to oneself.
maturity principle A shift toward greater emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness in personality from adolescence to middle adulthood.
trust versus mistrust The psychosocial conflict of infancy in which infants must learn to trust others to meet their needs in order to trust themselves; first stage in Erikson’s theory.
autonomy versus shame and doubt The psychosocial conflict in which toddlers attempt to demonstrate their independence from and control over other people; second of Erikson’s stages.
initiative versus guilt The psychosocial conflict in which preschool children must learn to initiate new activities and pursue bold plans or become self-critical; third of Erikson’s stages.
industry versus inferiority The psychosocial conflict in which school-aged children must master important cognitive and social skills or feel incompetent; fourth of Erikson’s stages.
intimacy versus isolation The psychosocial conflict in which young adults must commit themselves to a shared identity with another person or remain aloof and unconnected to others; sixth of Erikson’s stages.
generativity versus stagnation The psychosocial conflict in which middle-aged adults must gain the sense that they have produced something that will outlive them and genuinely care for younger generations to avoid self-preoccupation; seventh of Erikson’s stages.
integrity versus despair The psychosocial conflict in which elderly adults attempt to find a sense of meaning in their lives and to accept the inevitability of death; eighth of Erikson’s stages.
life review Process in which elderly adults reflect on unresolved conflicts of the past and evaluate their lives; it may contribute to a sense of integrity and readiness for death.
midlife crisis A period of major questioning, inner struggle, and re-evaluation hypothesized to occur in an adult’s early 40s.
Created by: eduktd
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