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CH 9 Sigelman &Rider

Life-Span Human Development, 9th edition

TermDefinition
psychometric approach The research tradition that spawned standardized tests of intelligence and that views intelligence (or personality) as a set of traits that can be measured and that varies from person to person.
fluid intelligence Aspects of intelligence that involve actively thinking and reasoning to solve novel problems. Contrast with crystallized intelligence.
crystallized intelligence Those aspects of intellectual functioning that involve using knowledge acquired through experience. Contrast with fluid intelligence.
factor analysis Statistical technique to identify meaningful groupings of personality scale or intelligence test items that are correlated with each other but not with other groupings of items.
mental age (MA) A measure of intellectual development that reflects the level of age-graded problems that a child is able to solve; the age at which a child functions intellectually.
Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale One of the most widely used, individually administered intelligence tests, which yields an IQ score.
intelligence quotient (IQ) A numerical measure of a person’s performance on an intelligence test relative to the performance of other examinees of the same age, typically with a score of 100 defined as average.
test norms Standards of normal performance on psychometric instruments based on the average scores and range of scores obtained by a large, representative sample of test takers.
Wechsler Scales A set of widely used, individually administered intelligence tests that yield verbal, performance, and overall IQ scores.
normal distribution A symmetrical (bell-shaped) curve that describes the variability of a characteristic within a population. Most people fall at or near the average score; there are relatively few high or low scores.
standard deviation A measure of the dispersion or spread around the mean of a distribution of scores; in the case of IQ tests with a mean score of 100, the standard deviation is 15, meaning that about two-thirds of people taking the test have scores between 85 and 115.
savant syndrome The phenomenon in which extraordinary talent in a particular area is displayed by a person who is otherwise mentally retarded.
prodigies Individuals, especially children, endowed with one or more extraordinary ability.
triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg’s information-processing theory of intelligence that emphasizes three aspects of intelligent behavior: a practical component emphasizing the effect of context on what is intelligent; a creative component centering on coping with both novel and familiar problems; and an analytic component focused on the cognitive processes used to solve a problem.
practical component In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the aspect of intelligence that varies from one sociocultural context to another.
creative component In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the aspect of intelligence that varies with experience on a task.
automatization The process by which information processing becomes effortless and highly efficient as a result of continued practice or increased expertise.
culture bias The situation that arises in testing when one cultural or subcultural group is more familiar with test items than another group and therefore has an unfair advantage.
analytic component In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the information-processing skills such as thinking critically and analytically.
successful intelligence Sternberg’s concept that people are intelligent to the extent that they are able to succeed in life in their sociocultural context.
creativity The ability to produce novel responses or works; see also divergent thinking.
convergent thinking Thinking that involves “converging” on the one best answer to a problem; what IQ tests measure. Contrast with divergent thinking.
divergent thinking Thinking that requires coming up with a variety of ideas or solutions to a problem when there is no one right answer. Contrast with convergent thinking.
ideational fluency The sheer number of different (including novel) ideas that a person can generate; a measure of creativity or divergent thinking.
investment theory Sternberg’s view that creativity emerges from a confluence, or coming together, of several ingredients, each in the right amounts and at the right times: intellectual abilities, knowledge, cognitive style, personality, motivation, and a supportive environment.
General Adaptive Composite (GAC) An overall score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development reflecting the cognitive, language, motor, and social–emotional development of an infant in comparison with a large norm group of infants or toddlers the same age.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) Standardized test to measure the mental, motor, and behavioral progress of infants and young children.
child poverty A household climate that includes low income along with low levels of response to children’s basic needs.
Flynn effect The rise in average IQ scores over the 20th century.
dysrationalia A term coined by Keith Stanovich for a quite common inability to think and behave rationally despite having adequate intelligence.
terminal drop A rapid decline in intellectual abilities that people within a few years of dying often experience.
wisdom A combination of rich factual knowledge about life and procedural knowledge such as strategies for giving advice and handling conflicts.
cumulative-deficit hypothesis The notion that impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and that these inhibiting effects accumulate over time.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory A widely used instrument that allows an observer to determine how intellectually stimulating or impoverished a home environment is.
stereotype threat An individual’s fear of being judged to have the qualities associated with negative stereotypes of his or her social group.
intellectual disability Significantly below-average intellectual functioning with limitations in areas of adaptive behavior such as self-care and social skills, originating before age 18 (previously known as mental retardation).
giftedness The possession of unusually high general intellectual potential or of special abilities in such areas as creativity, mathematics, or the arts.
Created by: PRO Teacher eduktd