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CH 5 Sigelman &Rider

Life-Span Human Development, 9th edition: Body, Brain, & Health

celiac disease An inherited digestive problem in which gluten (the proteins found in all wheat products) triggers an immune response that damages a person’s small intestine.
catch-up growth A phenomenon in which children who have experienced growth deficits will grow rapidly and catch up to the growth trajectory they are genetically programmed to follow.
endocrine gland A type of gland that secretes chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands play critical roles in stimulating growth and regulating bodily functions.
pituitary gland The “master gland” located at the base of the brain that regulates the other endocrine glands and produces growth hormone.
growth hormone Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates childhood physical growth and the adolescent growth spurt.
androgens Male hormones that help trigger the adolescent growth spurt and the development of the male sex organs, secondary sex characteristics, and sexual motivation.
estrogen The female hormone responsible for the development of the breasts, the female sex organs, and secondary sex characteristics and for the beginning of menstrual cycles.
neuron The basic unit of the nervous system; a nerve cell.
synapse The point at which the axon or dendrite of one neuron makes a connection with another neuron.
myelination The depositing of a fatty sheath around neural axons that insulates them and thereby speeds the transmission of neural impulses.
cephalocaudal principle The principle that growth proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (caudal region).
proximodistal principle In development, the principle that growth proceeds from the center of the body (or the proximal region) to the extremities (or the distal regions).
orthogenetic principle Werner’s principle that development proceeds from global and undifferentiated states toward more differentiated and integrated patterns of response.
synaptogenesis The growth of synapses, or connections between neurons.
synaptic pruning The removal of unnecessary synapses between neurons in response to experience.
plasticity An openness of brain cells or of the organism as a whole to positive and negative environmental influence; a capacity to change in response to experience.
reflex An unlearned and automatic response to a stimulus.
REM sleep A state of active, irregular sleep associated with dreaming; named for the rapid eye movements associated with it.
congenital malformations Defects that are present at birth and are caused by genetic factors, prenatal events, or both.
lateralization The specialization of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex of the brain.
body mass index (BMI) An indicator of body fat calculated from a person’s height and weight.
puberty The processes of biological change that result in an individual’s attaining sexual maturity and becoming capable of producing a child.
adolescent growth spurt The rapid increase in physical growth that occurs during adolescence.
adrenarche A period of increased production of adrenal hormones, starting around 6–8 years of age, that normally precedes increased production of gonadal hormones associated with puberty.
concussion A brain injury involving a brief loss of brain function in response to a hit or blow to the head; immediate symptoms include headache, sensitivity to light and sound, feeling dizzy or foggy, and slowed reaction time.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) A degenerative brain disease with symptoms of memory loss, poor impulse control, depression, and eventually dementia; a risk for football players and participants in other contact sports.
menarche A female’s first menstrual period.
semenarche A boy’s first ejaculation.
secular trend A trend in industrialized societies toward earlier maturation and greater body size.
obesity Condition of being overweight; specifically, being 20% or more above the “ideal” weight for one’s height, age, and sex.
diabetes A metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of glucose or sugar in the blood leading to symptoms of thirst, excessive urination, fatigue, and problems involving eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
metabolic syndrome (MeTS) A combination of risk factors that can lead to heart disease; notably obesity, high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and insulin resistance (which can lead to diabetes).
neurogenesis The process of generating new neurons across the life span.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Several symptoms experienced shortly before each menstrual period that include having tender breasts, feeling bloated, and being irritable and moody.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) Severe form of premenstrual syndrome that includes affective symptoms in addition to physical symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle and that can be disabling or disruptive to work and relationships.
menopause The ending of a woman’s menstrual periods and reproductive capacity around age 51.
hot flash A sudden experience of warmth and sweating, often followed by a cold shiver, that occurs in a menopausal woman.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Taking estrogen and progestin to compensate for hormone loss because of menopause in women.
andropause The slower and less-dramatic male counterpart of menopause, characterized by decreasing levels of testosterone and symptoms that include low libido, fatigue and lack of energy, erection problems, memory problems, and loss of pubic hair.
erectile dysfunction A man’s inability to achieve or sustain an erection for intercourse, despite having sufficient levels of testosterone.
osteoarthritis A joint problem among older adults resulting from a gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
osteoporosis A disease affecting older adults in which bone tissue is lost, leaving bones fragile and easily fractured.
reserve capacity The ability of many organ systems to respond to demands for extraordinary output, such as when the heart and lungs work at maximal capacity.
programmed theories of aging Theories that emphasize the systematic genetic control of aging processes. Contrast with random error theories of aging.
error (damage) theories of aging Theories of aging that call attention to haphazard processes that cause damage or errors in cells to accumulate and organ systems to deteriorate. Contrast with programmed theories of aging.
maximum life span A ceiling on the number of years that any member of a species lives; 120 years for humans.
centenarian An individual who lives to be 100 years of age.
hayflick limit The estimate that human cells can double only 50 times, plus or minus 10, and then will die.
telomere A stretch of DNA that forms the tip of a chromosome and that shortens after each cell division, serving as an aging clock and timing the death of cells.
free radicals Chemically unstable byproducts of metabolism that have an unpaired electron and react with other molecules to produce toxic substances that damage cells and contribute to aging.
antioxidants Vitamins C, E, and similar substances that may increase longevity, although not for long, by inhibiting the free radical activity associated with oxidation and in turn preventing age-related diseases.
caloric restriction A technique demonstrated to extend the life span of laboratory animals involving a highly nutritious but severely calorie-restricted diet.
Created by: eduktd
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