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CH 4 Sigelman &Rider

Life-Span Human Development, 9th edition: Prenatal Dev & Birth

infertility A couple’s inability to get pregnant after a year of trying to do so.
endometriosis A condition arising when bits of tissue lining the uterus grow outside the uterus; a cause of infertility.
artificial insemination A method of conception that involves injecting sperm from a woman’s partner or from a donor into the uterus.
in vitro fertilization (IVF) Procedure in which several eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized by sperm in a petri dish in the laboratory, then transferred to the woman’s uterus in hopes that one will implant on the wall of the uterus.
embryologist Scientist who studies early growth and development during the prenatal period.
germinal period First phase of prenatal development, lasting about 2 weeks from conception until the developing organism becomes attached to the wall of the uterus.
blastocyst A hollow sphere of about 100 to 150 cells that the zygote forms by rapid cell division as it moves through the fallopian tube.
miscarriage Loss of a pregnancy before survival of the baby outside the womb is possible.
embryonic period Second phase of prenatal development, lasting from the third through the eighth prenatal week, during which the major organs and anatomical structures begin to develop.
organogenesis The process, occurring during the period of the embryo, in which major organs take shape.
amnion A watertight membrane that surrounds the developing embryo, regulating its temperature and cushioning it against injuries.
chorion A membrane that surrounds the amnion and becomes attached to the uterine lining to gather nourishment for the embryo.
placenta An organ, formed from the chorion and the lining of the uterus, that provides for the nourishment of the unborn child and the elimination of its metabolic wastes.
spina bifida Condition in which the bottom of the neural tube fails to fully close during prenatal development and part of the spinal cord is not fully encased in the protective covering of the spinal column.
anencephaly Condition in which the top of the neural tube fails to close and the main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop properly.
testosterone The most important of the male hormones, or androgens; essential for normal sexual development during the prenatal period and at puberty.
fetal period The third phase of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth prenatal week until birth; during this period, the major organ systems begin to function effectively and the fetus grows rapidly.
proliferation Process in early brain development in which neurons multiply at a staggering rate throughout the prenatal period
migration Process in early brain development in which neurons move from their place of origin in the center of the brain to particular locations throughout the brain where they will become part of specialized functioning units.
differentiation In brain development, the progressive diversification of cells that results in their taking on different characteristics and functions.
age of viability A point (around the 24th prenatal week) when a fetus may survive outside the uterus if the brain and respiratory system are well enough developed and if excellent medical care is available.
myelin A fatty sheath that insulates neural axons and thereby speeds the transmission of neural impulses.
fetal programming Processes through which the prenatal environment affects the genetic unfolding of the embryo/fetus and its physiologic functions in ways that can influence health and mental health much later in life.
teratogen Any disease, drug, or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus.
critical period A defined period in the development of an organism when it is particularly sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside this period, the same influences will have far less effect.
thalidomide A mild tranquilizer that, taken early in pregnancy, can produce a variety of malformations of the limbs, eyes, ears, and heart.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) The death of a sleeping baby because of a failure of the respiratory system; linked to maternal smoking.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) A group of symptoms commonly observed in the offspring of mothers who use alcohol heavily during pregnancy, including a small head, widely spaced eyes, and mental retardation.
rubella A disease that has little effect on a pregnant woman but may cause several serious birth defects, such as blindness, deafness, and mental retardation, in unborn children exposed in the first 3 to 4 months of gestation; German measles.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) The life-threatening disease in which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys the immune system and makes victims susceptible to rare, so-called opportunistic, infections that eventually kill them. AIDS is transmitted through sexual activity, drug needle sharing, and from mother to child before or during birth.
syphilis A common sexually transmitted disease that may cross the placental barrier in the middle and later stages of pregnancy, causing miscarriage or serious birth defects.
stillbirth Fetal death that occurs late in pregnancy when survival outside womb would normally have been possible.
Lamaze method Prepared childbirth in which parents attend classes and learn mental exercises and relaxation techniques to ease delivery.
perinatal environment The environment surrounding birth.
perinatologist A maternal-fetal specialist who focuses on high-risk pregnancies.
oxytocin A hormone that plays important roles in facilitating parent-infant attachment as well as reducing anxiety and encouraging affiliation in other social relationships.
anoxia A lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain that may result in neurological damage or death.
breech presentation A delivery in which the fetus emerges feet first or buttocks first rather than head first.
cerebral palsy A neurological disability caused by anoxia that is associated with difficulty controlling muscle movements.
cesarean section A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus so that the baby can be removed through the abdomen.
postpartum depression An episode of severe, clinical depression lasting for months in a woman who has just given birth; to be contrasted with milder cases of the “baby blues,” in which a new mother is tearful and moody in the first days after birth.
couvade Sympathetic pregnancy, or the experiencing by fathers of some of the same physiological symptoms their pregnant partners experience (for example, bloating, weight gain, fatigue, insomnia, and nausea).
neonatal Pertaining to events or developments in the first month after birth.
at risk Children who have a higher than normal chance of either short-term or longterm problems because of genetic defects, prenatal hazards, or perinatal damage.
Apgar test A test routinely used to assess a newborn’s heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and reflexes immediately after birth and 5 minutes later; used to identify high-risk babies.
low birth weight (LBW) A weight at birth of less than 2500 grams, or 5½ pounds, associated with increased risk of developmental problems.
surfactant A substance that aids breathing by preventing the air sacs of the lungs from sticking together.
kangaroo care Holding a young infant skinto- skin on a parent’s chest; often used with premature babies to help maintain body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen levels in the blood.
Created by: eduktd
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