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CH 10 Griggs

Psychology: A Concise Introduction (5th Ed)

abnormal psychology The scientific study of mental disorders and their treatment.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) The current version of the American Psychiatric Association’s diagnostic and classification guidelines for mental disorders.
biopsychosocial approach Explaining abnormality as the result of the interaction among biological, psychological (behavioral and cognitive), and socio-cultural factors.
anxiety disorders Disorders that share features of excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral disturbances, such as avoidance behaviors.
specific phobia An anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of specific objects or situations that is excessive and unreasonable.
social anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of one or more social performance situations in which embarrassment may occur and in which there is exposure to unfamiliar people or scrutiny by others.
agoraphobia An anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.
panic disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurrent panic attacks.
generalized anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person has excessive, global anxiety and worries that he cannot control, occurring more days than not for at least a period of 6 months.
obsessive-compulsive disorder A disorder in which the person experiences recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are perceived by the person as excessive or unreasonable, but cause significant distress and disruption in the person’s daily life.
obsession A persistent intrusive thought, idea, impulse, or image that causes anxiety.
compulsion A repetitive and rigid behavior that a person feels compelled to perform in order to reduce anxiety.
depressive disorders Disorders that involve the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual’s capacity to function.
major depressive disorder A depressive disorder in which the person has experienced one or more major depressive episodes.
major depressive episode An episode that lasts for at least two weeks that is characterized by feelings of intense hopelessness, low-self-esteem and worthlessness, extreme fatigue, dramatic changes in diet and sleeping habits, inability to concentrate, and diminished interest.
manic episode An episode that lasts at least a week, characterized by abnormally elevated mood with symptoms such as inflated self-esteem with grandiose delusions, a decreased need for sleep, constant talking, distractibility, restlessness, and poor judgment.
bipolar disorder A disorder in which recurrent cycles of depressive and manic episodes occur.
psychotic disorder A disorder characterized by a loss of contact with reality.
hallucination A false sensory perception.
delusion A false belief.
schizophrenia A psychotic disorder in which at least two of the following symptoms are present most of the time during a 1-month period— hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms such as loss of emotion.
vulnerability–stress model A biopsychosocial explanation of schizophrenia that proposes that genetic, prenatal, and postnatal biological factors render a person vulnerable to schizophrenia, but environmental stress determines whether it develops or not.
personality disorder A disorder characterized by inflexible, long-standing personality traits that lead to behavior that impairs social functioning and deviates from cultural norms.
biomedical therapy The use of biological interventions, such as drugs, to treat mental disorders.
psychotherapy The use of psychological interventions to treat mental disorders.
lithium A naturally occurring element (a mineral salt) that is used to treat bipolar disorder.
antidepressant drugs Drugs used to treat depressive disorders.
neurogenesis theory of depression "An explanation of depression that proposes that neurogenesis, the growth of new neurons, in the hippocampus stops during depression, and when it resumes, the depression lifts."
antianxiety drugs Drugs used to treat anxiety problems and disorders.
antipsychotic drugs Drugs used to treat psychotic disorders.
tardive dyskinesia A side effect of long-term use of traditional antipsychotic drugs causing the person to have uncontrollable facial tics, grimaces, and other involuntary movements of the lips, jaw, and tongue.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) A biomedical treatment for severe depression that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure.
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) A neurostimulation therapy in which the left frontal lobe is stimulated with magnetic pulses via an electromagnetic coil placed on the patient’s scalp; is only cleared for use in cases of severe depression for which traditional treatment has not helped.
psychosurgery A biomedical treatment in which specific areas of the brain are destroyed.
lobotomy A type of psychosurgery in which the neuronal connections of the frontal lobes to lower brain areas are severed.
psychoanalysis A style of psychotherapy, originally developed by Sigmund Freud, in which the therapist helps the person gain insight into the unconscious sources of his or her problems.
free association A person spontaneously describes, without editing, all thoughts, feelings, or images that come to mind.
resistance A person’s unwillingness to discuss a particular topic during therapy.
manifest content Freud’s term for the literal surface meaning of a dream.
latent content Freud’s term for the underlying true meaning of a dream.
transference When a person undergoing therapy acts toward the therapist as he or she did or does toward important figures in his or her life, such as his or her parents.
client-centered therapy A style of psychotherapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy to help the person to gain insight into his or her true self-concept.
behavioral therapy A style of psychotherapy in which the therapist uses the principles of classical and operant conditioning to change the person’s behavior from maladaptive to adaptive.
counterconditioning A type of behavioral therapy in which a maladaptive response is replaced by an incompatible adaptive response.
systematic desensitization A counterconditioning exposure therapy in which a fear response to an object or situation is replaced with a relaxation response in a series of progressively increasing fear-arousing steps.
virtual reality therapy A counterconditioning exposure therapy in which the patient is exposed in graduated steps to computer simulations of a feared object or situation.
flooding A counterconditioning exposure therapy in which the patient is immediately exposed to a feared object or situation.
cognitive therapy A style of psychotherapy in which the therapist attempts to change the person’s thinking from maladaptive to adaptive.
rational-emotive therapy A type of cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, in which the therapist directly confronts and challenges the person’s unrealistic thoughts and beliefs to show that they are irrational.
Beck’s cognitive therapy A type of cognitive therapy, developed by Aaron Beck, in which the therapist works to develop a warm relationship with the person and has the person carefully consider the evidence for his or her beliefs in order to see the errors in his or her thinking.
spontaneous remission Getting better with the passage of time without receiving any therapy.
Created by: PRO Teacher eduktd