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CH 9 Griggs

Psychology: A Concise Introduction (6th Ed) Social Psych

social psychology The scientific study of how we influence one another’s behavior and thinking.
conformity A change in behavior, belief, or both to conform to a group norm as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
informational social influence Influence stemming from the need for information in situations in which the correct action or judgment is uncertain.
normative social influence Influence stemming from our desire to gain the approval and to avoid the disapproval of others.
compliance Acting in accordance with a direct request from another person or group.
foot-in-the-door technique Compliance to a large request is gained by preceding it with a very small request.
door-in-the-face technique Compliance is gained by starting with a large, unreasonable request that is turned down and following it with a more reasonable, smaller request.
low-ball technique Compliance to a costly request is gained by first getting compliance to an attractive, less costly request but then reneging on it.
that’s-not-all technique Compliance to a planned second request with additional benefits is gained by presenting this request before a response can be made to a first request.
obedience Following the commands of a person in authority.
experimenter bias A process in which the person performing the research influences the results in order to portray a certain outcome.
social facilitation Facilitation of a dominant response on a task due to social arousal, leading to improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks and worse performance on complex or unlearned tasks when other people are present.
social loafing The tendency to exert less effort when working in a group toward a common goal than when individually working toward the goal.
diffusion of responsibility The lessening of individual responsibility for a task when responsibility for the task is spread across the members of a group.
bystander effect The probability of a person’s helping in an emergency is greater when there are no other bystanders than when there are other bystanders.
deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymity.
group polarization The strengthening of a group’s prevailing opinion about a topic following group discussion about the topic.
groupthink A mode of group thinking that impairs decision making, because the desire for group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of the possible decision alternatives.
attribution The process by which we explain our own behavior and that of others.
fundamental attribution error The tendency as an observer to overestimate dispositional influences and underestimate situational influences on others’ behavior.
just-world hypothesis The assumption that the world is just and that people get what they deserve.
primacy effect In impression formation, information gathered early is weighted more heavily than information gathered later in forming an impression of another person.
self-fulfilling prophecy Our behavior leads a person to act in accordance with our expectations for that person.
actor-observer bias The tendency to overestimate situational influences on our own behavior, but to overestimate dispositional influences on the behavior of others.
self-serving bias The tendency to make attributions so that one can perceive oneself favorably.
false consensus effect The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and unsuccessful behaviors.
false uniqueness effect The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and successful behaviors.
attitudes Evaluative reactions (positive or negative) toward objects, events, and other people.
cognitive dissonance theory A theory, developed by Leon Festinger, that assumes people have a tendency to change their attitudes to reduce the cognitive discomfort created by inconsistencies between their attitudes and their behavior.
self-perception theory A theory, developed by Daryl Bem, that assumes that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them by examining our behavior and the context in which it occurs.
Created by: eduktd
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