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CH 7 Griggs+

Psychology: A Concise Introduction (5th Ed) Developmental Psych & NOBA Language*

TermDefinition
developmental psychology The scientific study of biological, cognitive, social, and personality development across the life span.
zygote The fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg cells in human reproduction.
gene The basic unit of genetic instruction.
chromosomes Molecules of DNA that hold the genetic instructions for every cell in the body.
identical (monozygotic) twins Twins that originate from the same zygote.
fraternal (dizygotic) twins Twins that originate from the fertilization of two eggs at approximately the same time (two zygotes).
teratogens Environmental agents such as drugs and viruses, diseases, and physical conditions that impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects and sometimes death.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) A syndrome affecting infants whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy, resulting in a range of severe effects including intellectual disability and facial abnormalities.
sucking reflex An innate human reflex that leads infants to suck anything that touches their lips.
rooting reflex An innate human reflex that leads infants to turn their mouth toward anything that touches their cheeks and search for something to suck on.
habituation A decrease in the physiological responding to a stimulus once it becomes familiar.
phonemes The smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language.
baby talk (parentese) The different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodious pitch.
babbling The rhythmic repetition of various syllables including both consonants and vowels.
holophrase A word used by an infant to express a complete idea.
overextension The application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word.
underextension The failure to apply a new word more generally to objects that are included within the meaning of the word.
telegraphic speech Using two-word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs.
assimilation Piaget’s term for the interpretation of new experiences in terms of present schemas.
accommodation In Piagetian theory, Piaget’s term for the modification of present schemas to fit with new experiences.
sensorimotor stage The first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2, during which infants learn about the world through their sensory and motor interactions with it and develop object permanence.
object permanence The knowledge that an object exists independent of perceptual contact with it.
preoperational stage The second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from age 2 to 6, during which the child’s thinking becomes more symbolic and language-based, but remains egocentric and lacks the mental operations that allow logical thinking.
egocentrism The inability to distinguish one’s own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from those of others.
conservation The knowledge that the quantitative properties of objects (such as mass and number) remain the same despite changes in appearance.
reversibility The knowledge that reversing a transformation brings about the conditions that existed before the transformation.
centration The tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time.
concrete operational stage The third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from age 6 to 12, during which children gain a fuller understanding of conservation and other mental operations that allow them to think logically, but only about concrete events.
formal operational stage The last stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, starting at age 12 or so, during which a child gains the capacity for hypothetical-deductive thought.
information-processing approach to cognitive development An approach to studying cognitive development that assumes cognitive development is continuous and improves as children become more adept at processing information (taking in, storing, and using information).
zone of proximal development According to Vygotsky, the difference between what a child can actually do and what the child could do with the help of others.
scaffolding According to Vygotsky, a style of teaching in which the teacher adjusts the level of help in relation to the child’s level of performance while orienting the child’s learning toward the upper level of his or her zone of proximal development.
cross-sectional study A study in which the performances of groups of participants of different ages are compared with one another.
longitudinal study A study in which performance of the same group of participants is examined at different ages.
cohort effects People of a given age (cohorts) are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to differences in performance between generations.
preconventional level of moral reasoning The first level of reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on avoiding punishment and looking out for your own welfare and needs.
conventional level of moral reasoning The second level of reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws.
postconventional level of moral reasoning The last level of reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory in which moral reasoning is based on self-chosen universal ethical principles (human rights taking precedence over laws) and the avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such principles.
attachment The lifelong emotional bond between infants and their mothers or other caregivers, formed during the first 6 months of life.
secure attachment The type of attachment indicated by the infant exploring freely in the presence of the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, displaying distress when the mother leaves, and responding enthusiastically when she returns.
insecure-avoidant attachment The type of attachment indicated by the infant exploring with little interest in the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, showing only minimal distress when the mother leaves, and avoiding her when she returns.
insecure-ambivalent attachment The type of attachment indicated by the infant not exploring but seeking closeness to the mother in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, showing high levels of distress when the mother leaves, and ambivalent behavior when she returns.
insecure-disorganized (disoriented) attachment The type of attachment indicated by the infant’s confusion when the mother leaves and returns in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure. The infant acts disoriented, overwhelmed by the situation, and does not have a consistent way of coping with it.
temperament The set of innate tendencies or dispositions that lead a person to behave in certain ways.
authoritarian parenting A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children’s desires, and communicate poorly with their children.
authoritative parenting A style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children.
permissive parenting A style of parenting in which the parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their children’s desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please.
uninvolved parenting A style of parenting in which the parents minimize both the time they spend with their children and their emotional involvement with them and provide for their children’s basic needs, but little else.
theory of mind The understanding of the mental and emotional states of both ourselves and others.
Audience design Constructing utterances to suit the audience’s knowledge.
Common ground Information that is shared by people who engage in a conversation.
Ingroup Group to which a person belongs.
Lexicon Words and expressions.
Linguistic intergroup bias A tendency for people to characterize positive things about their ingroup using more abstract expressions, but negative things about their outgroups using more abstract expressions.
Outgroup Group to which a person does not belong.
Priming A stimulus presented to a person reminds him or her about other ideas associated with the stimulus.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis The hypothesis that the language that people use determines their thoughts.
Situation model A mental representation of an event, object, or situation constructed at the time of comprehending a linguistic description.
Social brain hypothesis The hypothesis that the human brain has evolved, so that humans can maintain larger ingroups.
Social networks Networks of social relationships among individuals through which information can travel.
Syntax Rules by which words are strung together to form sentences.
Created by: PRO Teacher eduktd