click below

click below

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Pers Psych Ch2

Question | Answer |
---|---|

theory* | a general statement about the relationship between constructs or events |

good theory | parsimonious useful-generate testable hypotheses |

hypothesis* | a formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically derived from the theory |

independent variable* | determines how the groups in the experiment are divided. Often manipulated by the experimenter, i.e- the amount of a drug each group receives, how much anxiety is created in each group, or the type of story each group reads |

dependent variable (outcome variable)* | measured by the investigator and used to compare the experimental groups |

interaction | how one independent variable affects the dependent vari-able depends on the other independent variable |

manipulated independent variable | begins with a large number of participants and randomly assigns them to experimental groups |

nonmanipulated independent variable (subject variable) | exists without the researcherâ€™s intervention. |

replication | The more often an effect is found in research, the more confidence we have that it reflects a genuine relationship. |

case study method* | an in-depth evaluation of a single individual (or sometimes a few individuals) |

statistical significance | likelihood that a relationship between two or more variables is caused by something other than chance |

correlation coefficient* | appropriate statistical test when we want to understand the relationship between two measures...range from 1.00 to -1.00 |

reliability* | when an assessment/test measures consistently |

internal consistency | all the items on the test measure the same thing |

internal consistency coefficient | determine how well responses on one test item correlate with responses on the other items |

validity | the extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure |

predictive validity | the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure |

hypothetical construct | explanatory variable which is not directly observable i.e.-intelligence |

face validity | the degree to which a procedure appears effective in terms of its stated aims. |

congruent validity (convergent validity) | the extent to which scores from the test correlate with other measures of the same construct |

discriminant validity | the extent to which a test score does not correlate with the scores of theoretically unrelated measures |

behavioral validation | test scores predict relevant behavior |

4 types of validity | face congruent behavioral discriminate |