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PGS 222 Ch 12 Exam 4

Infant Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and other STIs

sexuality of infants Infants have the capacity for sexual response (arousal and orgasm) present at birth but are unable to differentiate sexual from sensual pleasure. They engage in self-pleasuring activity and sexual behavior is a normal part of development.
suggestions for reducing teen pregnancies High in US but declining; 1/5 sex active teens; Edu should stress that sex is a positive aspect of humanity; more accepting attitudes towards sex will lead to effective BC use; School clinics; comp natl sex ed for all grades; free, confid contracep avail;
effect of good communication with parents on teen sexuality Later onset of and more infrequent coitus; Consistent & more effective use of BC; Fewer sex partners; Decreased risk of STDs; Decreased incidence of teen pregnancy
childhood sex play Sex play begins around 4-7 years of age --> "Playing doctor/house"; Play is more important than sex --> Curiosity
teens preference for sex educators Young people prefer parents as primary source of sex info, but only 20% get it from parents --> friends are principal source; Prefer mothers vs. fathers;
factors associated with later onset of coitus Strong religious beliefs, maternal/parental disapproval, high parental expectation, satisfied w/ relations w/ mother, high socioeconomic status, good school performance/higher intelligence, later onset of puberty, believed they had 1+ caring adults, com
HIV education and teen sexual behavior Most educated teens do not think that they are at risk because of a belief in invulnerability and condoms viewed more as BC than as STD prevention --> 20% of AIDS casess contracted in teen years
effects of physical affection in infancy/childhood on later adult adjustment Less violence in adulthood in societies where children are nurtured
childhood masturbation Safe sexual release & way to learn about self; Begins around 2-3 years of age and is common and natural! Adolescence: Increase in frequency & numbers in nearly all boys and 3/4 girls
physical affection in infancy/childhood & effects on culture Less violence in adulthood
same-sex sex play Most common in childhood
earliest signs of puberty in males and females Reproductive organs mature at 8-14 years of age (2 yrs earlier for girls); Triggered by the release of gonadotropins which signal the testes/ovaries --> pubic/facial hair, growth spurt, enlarged genitals, axillary oil-secretion, voice changes, breasts
double standard among teens Gender role differentiation increases in adolescence (but may be diminishing in US) --> Girls focus on relationships while boys focus on sexual conquest; Double standard: appear sexy but not "easy" & boys are encouraged to be aggressive & independent
oral sex among teens Has increased dramatically in order to learn about sexual intimacy but still technically stay a virgin. However, teens can be unaware of the risk for disease
factors which influence racial & ethnic differences in rates of coitus among teens Different sexual norms, attitudes and expectations for different groups (African-Americans more tolerant of sexual behavior while Asians are not); Socioeconomic status is lower for many ethnic groups which is linked to earlier coitus
homosexuality and teens Common among same-sex peers and is experimental or transitory --> 6-11% Girls & 11-14% Boys; Many individuals begin to self-identify as gay, etc. in teens; Encounter negative societal reactions and reconciling orientation can be difficult
hazards associated with teen pregnancy Phys complications: anemia, toxemia, hypertension, hemorrhage, miscarriage, death; Higher prenatal/infant mortality rates; High risk for STDs; Likely to drop out of school; Lower quality parenting; Children at higher risk for mental, phys & intel probs
sex education in the home Start early! Don't put off questions & make it an ongoing discussion; Check for understanding; Weave into everyday convo; Sex is pleasurable; Masturbation is "private" so boundaries must be set & privacy respected; aware of phys changes; bedirect & honest
school-based sex education 43% states, 52% districts, 57% schools require at elementary level; Quality of programs vary; Most parents support comprehensive programs; ABSTINENCE BASED: don't delay 1st intercourse or affect attitudes about sex; don't reduce teen preg or spread STDs;
abstinence only sex ed 37% of districts teach abstinence only; $900 million to abstinence only but none to comprehensive during Bush administration
Created by: 10054598