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Vocabulary and Other Stuff

Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering
Embryo The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Zygote The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Fetus The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Placenta The organ in most mammals, formed in the lining of the uterus by the union of the uterine mucous membrane with the membranes of the fetus, that provides for the nourishment of the fetus and the elimination of its waste products
Teratogen Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
Rooting Reflex A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple.
Conservation The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Attachment An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Imprinting The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Accommodation Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Assimilation Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
Schema A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Fluid Intelligence One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Crystallized Intelligence One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, tends to increase with age
Object Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Egocentrism In Piaget's theory, the inability of th preoperational child to take another's point of view
Sensorimotor Stage In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Preoperational Stage In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Concrete Operational Stage In Piaget's Theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Formal Operational Stage In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning at about age 12)during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Theory of Mind People's ideas about their own and others' mental states--about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Secure Attachment In their mother's presence, the babies play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment and use their mother as a home base. When they mother leaves, they are distress and when she returns, they seek contact with her.
Insecure Attachment They are less likely to explore their surroundings and may even cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to their mother's going and returning.
Authoritarian Impose rules and expect obedience."Because I said so"
Permissive Submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment
Authoritative Both demanding and response. Exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them, but also by explaining the reasons and encouraging open disucssion and allowing exceptions when making the rules.
Preconventional Before age 9 most children have this phase of morality of self-interest:: They obey to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
Conventional By early adolescence, morality usually evolves to higher level that cares for others and upholds law and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules.
Postconventional Some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to a third level. This morality affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles.
Created by: clarefitz