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PrincipleMod 2

Questions from Module 2 of the Principles component

A second and third trimester sonography examination should include but not necessarily be limited to the assessment of the following fetal anatomy Cerebral Ventricles,Posterior Fossa (including cerebellum and cisterna magna),Four chamber Heart,Position of heart in the thorax,Spine,Stomach,Kidneys,Urinary Bladder,Fetal Umbilical Cord Insertion Site,Intact Abdominal Wall,
Focus during a 1st trimester ultrasound to confirm and date a pregnancy and to determine cause whenever vaginal bleeding occurs.
Focus during a 2nd trimester ultrasound The complete obstetrical examination defines placental location, fetal age and number, and screens fetal anatomy for obvious defects. (typically 16-18wks)
Focus during a 3rd trimester ultrasound to monitor placental locations and fetal positions which may interfere with vaginal deliveries. Abnormal fluid volume is investigated and growth and size is monitored to document intrauterine growth restriction or conversely fetal macrosomia
Human pregnancy lasts how long? 266 +/- 10 days
How long is it from LNMP to conception (in days and weeks) 266 + 14days = 280 days; 280/7 = 40 weeks
Identify breech and vertex presentations when viewing longitudinal obstetrical sonograms which include the maternal bladder and cervix. Breech = head up; Vertex = head down
Specify the normal length of each trimester 1st trimester = weeks 1-12; 2nd trimester = weeks 13-26; 3rd trimester = weeks 27-term
How is gestational age determined during the first trimester? Measuring CRL and gestational sac
How is gestational age determined during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters? Biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumfernece, femur length
Describe the significance of the location of the placenta in relation to the internal cervical os Placenta previa (complete, partial, marginal) may complicate delivery due to obstruction of the internal OS.
Describe the sonographic appearance of the placenta during gestation (placental grading) 0=smooth chorionic plate(CP), homogeneous appearance; 1=random echogenic areas, subtle indentations on CP; 2= basal echogenic densities, commalike densities in CP; 3= fallout areas, irregular densities with acoustic shadowing, scalloped CP
Describe the sonographic markers used to properly orient the transducer planes for the BPD, HC and AC. BPD: transverse, level of thalamus and cavum septum pellucidum; HC: transverse view, same as above; AC: transverse left portal left umbilical vein, abdomen
What is the significance and sonographic appearance of the gestational sac. the only intrauterine structure that can be used to determine if an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) exists, until the embryo is identified; it is an anechoic space surrounded by a hyperchoic rim, spherical in shape
Created by: sbeard1