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Semantics The study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences.
Pragmatics The study of how context and situation affect meaning.
Synonym Different words with the same meaning.
Homonym Different words pronounced the same--to, too, two
Homograph Different words spelled the same (and sometimes pronounced the same)--bear and bear.
Deixis/Deictic Describes words or expressions whose reference relies entirely on context (e.g., I, now, here, this cat).
Anaphora The process of replacing a longer expression with a shorter one, especially with a pronoun, that is coreferential with the longer expression.
Anomaly A violation of semantic rules resulting in expressions that give the impression of being nonsense (e.g., the verb crumbled the milk)
Allomorph Alternate phonetic forms of a morpheme; e.g., the /-s/, /-z/, and /ez/ forms of the plural morpheme in cats, dogs, and kisses.
Obstruent The class of sounds consisting of nonnasal stops, fricatives, and affricates.
Sonorant The class of sounds that includes vowels, glides, liquids, and nasals; nonobstruents.
Suprasegmental Prosodic features (e.g., length, tone).
Aspirated Voiceless consonants produced with a puff of air.
Behaviorism In regards to language acquisition, language learning is a matter of imitation and habit formation.
Innatism Proposed by Noam Chomsky; it claims that children are biologically programmed for language and will acquire language as long as they live in a "normal" environment.
Interactionism language develops as a result of the complex interplay between the uniquely human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops--the use of modified input is crucial to the acquisition of language.
Foreigner talk The modified language used by native speakers of a language when speaking to a nonnative speaker.
Modified input Changing language to make it more understandable for one's conversation partner.
Contrastive analysis hypothesis Errors in L2 come from L1 interference. The idea is that where the L1 is similar to the L2, things will be easier to learn. Where the L1 differs from the L2, things will be difficult and more errors will occur.
Creative construction theory learners construct internal representations (mental pictures) of the language being learned. It proposes that internal processing strategies operate on language input without any direct dependence on the learner actually producing the language.
Holophrastic The stage of child language acquisition where one word = one sentence.
Isogloss The boundary separating one regional dialect or dialectical characteristic from another.
Lingua Franca The major language used in an area where speakers of more than one language live that permits communication and commerce among them.
Style/Register Situation dialects (e.g., formal speech, casual speech)/A stylistic variant of a language appropriate to a particular social setting.
Euphemism A word or phrase that replaces a taboo word or is used to avoid reference to certain acts or subjects.
Colloquialism A word or phrase that is more commonly used in informal speech or writing (e.g., boss for employer)--some people consider it slang, but slang is usually more of an in-group phenomenon.
Semantics The study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences.
Syntax The rules of sentence formation.
Form Phonological or gestural representation of a morpheme or word.
Meaning Refers to the conceptual or semantic aspect of a word or sentence that permits us to comprehend the message being conveyed.
Derivational Morpheme Morphemes added to stem morphemes to form new stems or words that may or may not change the syntactic category of a word.
Inflectional Morpheme Bound grammatical morphemes that are added to complete words according to rules of syntax.
Function Words Grammatical words including conjunctions, prepositions, articles, etc.
Coinage The construction and addition of new words to the lexicon.
Eponym A word taken from a proper name, such as john for toilet.
Back-formation A new word created by what is mistakenly considered to be an affix ( edit from editor).
definite article the
indefinite article a or an.
Auxiliary Verb A verb which is used with another verb in a sentence, and which shows grammatical functions such as aspect, voice, mood, tense, and person.
Count nouns A noun which has both singular and plural forms.
Uncountable/Mass nouns A noun which has no singular or plural forms
Demonstrative Articles Words which refer to something in terms of whether it is near to or distant from the speaker.
Grammar A description of the structure of a language and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentences in the language.
Modal Verb A form of auxiliary verb other than be, have, do, such as: can, could, will, would, should, and must.
Passive Voice The fence was damaged by the wind.
Active Voice The wind damaged the fence
Phrasal Verb Phrasal verbs can refer to a variety of kinds of phrases which usually consist of a verb plus an adverb particle, usually prepositions are also included.
Created by: ccariker
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