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WGU- Ed. Assessment

Educational Assessment

Achievement Assessment A procedure that is used to determine the degree to which individuals have achieved the intended learning outcomes of instruction. It includes both paper-and-pencil tests and performance assessments, plus judgments concerning learning progress.
Achievement Test An instrument that typically uses sets of items designed to measure a domain of learning tasks and is administered under specified conditions. (knowledge and skills learned) degree of success in some past learning activity.
Alternate Forms Two or more forms of a test or assessment that are designed to measure the same abilities (also called equivalent or parallel forms).
Alternative Assessment An assessment procedure that doesn't use paper-and-pencil testing. (no conventional/traditional items such as multiple-choice, matching, etc. ex. no Scantron)
Analytic Scoring The assignment of scores to individual components of a performance or product (e.g., Evaluate a writing sample by using separate scores for organization, style, mechanics, etc.).
Anecdotal Record A brief description of some significant student behavior, the setting in which it occurred, and an interpretation of its meaning.
Authentic Assessment An assessment procedure that emphasizes the use of tasks and contextual settings like those in the real world
Battery of Tests Two or more tests standardized on the same sample of students, so that performance on the different tests can be compared using a common norm group.
Checklist A list of dimensions of a performance or product that is simply checked present or absent.
Content Standard A broad educational goal that indicates what a student should know and be able to do in a subject area.
Criteria A set of qualities used in judging a performance, a product, or an assessment instrument.
Criterion-Referenced Interpretation A description of an individual’s performance in terms of the tasks he or she can and cannot perform. Important for instructional uses of assessment results
Difficulty Index The degree to which a test item or task discriminates between high and low scorers on the total test.
Generalizability The extent to which an assessment procedure provides comparable results over different samples of similar tasks, different settings, and different administrations.
Grade Equivalent Score A derived score that indicates the grade level at which an individual’s score matches the average score (e.g., a grade equivalent score of 4.5 indicates the raw score matches the average score of students in the middle of the fourth grade).
Holistic Scoring The assignment of a score based on an overall impression of a performance or product rather than a consideration of individual elements. The overall judgment is typically guided by descriptions of the various levels of performance or scoring rubrics.
Item Analysis Traditionally, a method for determining the difficulty and discriminating power of test items. It can also be used to determine the responsiveness of test items to instructional effects.
Likert-type Scale A scale requiring subjects to select a response indicating their level of agreement with a statement.
Mastery Test An assessment method used to determine whether an individual has met some predetermined level of performance.
Mean The arithmetic average that is determined by adding together a set of scores and dividing by the number of scores.
Normal Curve A symmetrical bell-shaped curve based on a precise mathematical equation. It is widely used in interpreting standardized test scores because of its fixed mathematical properties.
Norm-Referenced Interpretation A description of an individual’s performance in terms of how it compares to the performance of others (typically those in a norm group). May be needed for selection and classification decisions.
Norms Data that describe the performance of individuals in some reference group (e.g., national norms, local norms). Represent average or typical performance and are not to be interpreted as standards.
Objective Test A test that can be consistently scored by equally competent scorers (i.e., they obtain the same scores). This contrasts with subjective tests where the scores are influenced by scorer judgment (e.g., essay tests).
Percentile Band A range of percentile ranks that sets reasonable limits within which an individual’s true score is likely to fall. It takes into account the inconsistency of obtained scores due to errors of measurement (also called an error band or confidence band).
Percentile Rank The percentage of individuals in a group scoring at or below a given score. Not to be confused with the percentage-correct score.
Performance Assessment Procedure requires individuals to perform tasks & process or product is judged using prespecified criteria. Both restricted response & extended response, realism, focus on highly complex learning tasks, time consuming, and scoring is subjective.
Portfolio Assessment purposeful collection of student work- tells story of student's efforts, progress,or achievement over time. Includes student participation in selection of content; guidelines for selection; criteria for judging merit; & evidence of student self-reflection
Range The difference between the highest score and the lowest score in a distribution of scores.
Rating Scale A systematic procedure for guiding and recording judgments concerning the degree to which the characteristics of a performance or behavior are present.
Reliability The degree to which assessment results are consistent from one measurement (or assessment) to another.
Scoring Rubric A set of scoring guidelines that describe the characteristics of the different levels of performance used in scoring or judging a performance.
Standard Score A term used to describe a variety of derived scores that convert raw scores to a standard scale for a more useful interpretation of test results.
Standardized Achievement Test A test constructed to fit detailed specifications, administered under prescribed conditions to selected groups, and scored using definite rules of scoring.
Task An assessment exercise that requires students to demonstrate a knowledge, skill, or combination of attributes, by means of a performance or product (see performance assessment).
Validity The extent to which inferences made from assessment results are appropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of the purpose for the assessment.
Placement Assessment (measures entry behavior) To determine student performance at the beginning of instruction
Summative Assessment (measures end-of-course achievement) To assess achievement at the end of instruction
Diagnositic assessment (identifies causes of learning problems) To diagnose learning difficulties during instruction
Formative Assessment (monitors learning progress) To monitor learning progress during instruction
Selected-Response Test (e.g., multiple-choice tests) are lowest in realism and complexity of the tasks assessed, but require little time to administer and can be scored quickly and objectively.
Supply-Response Test (e.g., essay tests) are higher in realism and the complexity of tasks they can measure (e.g., ability to originate, integrate, and express ideas), but they are more time consuming to use and more difficult to score.
Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Provides a useful framework for identifying and preparing instructional objectives, instructional activities, and assessment methods. The revised taxonomy is two-dimensional.
Higher Order Thinking Involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as critical thinking and problem solving. More difficult to learn or teach but also more valuable because such skills are more likely to be usable in novel situations.
Absolute Grading Requires predetermined standards based on clearly specified learning tasks and measures designed for criterion-referenced interpretation. Based on a mastery learning program, should be used with defined cutoff points and a stated rationale.
Professional Code of Responsibilities in Educational Measurement applies to any type of assessment that occurs as part of the educational process, including formal and informal, traditional and alternative techniques for gathering information used in making educational decisions at all levels.
Assessment for Learning provides students with the responsibility to be part of their own education and is about the students and making them better (Take students to where they are supposed to be by using standards)
Standards of Assessment Quality Assessing in a variety of ways is only a good idea if all assessments meet the standards; Students aren’t expected to achieve in just one way; focus on different kinds of achievement
Master teacher needs to understand the variety of assessments that can be used, when to use them and how to use them
Evidence of Enhanced Student Achievement Students are more motivated, Boosts are seen in student achievement (through use of dependable information, quality feedback, combined with student involvement)
Standards-Based Unit for Diverse Learners a teaching plan that organizes powerful and focused learning activities and assessments around the grade-level indicators and essential understandings.
Pre-Assessments quick informal surveys that tell what prior knowledge the students possess, what they are especially interested in, how they best learn and what skills they use well or still need.
Checkpoint Assessments samples, tests, quizzes and portfolios that are used to decide if a student needs more or less instruction and practice. Some will be graded and others will be sources of feedback.
Journal Assessment provide quick & insightful ways of checking understanding attitudes & interests of students (allow students to report on what they have learned, how they feel about the learning & how they see themselves making use of this material in their own lives)
Observation Assessments One of the easiest and most reliable ways to assess student learning, styles, interests and attitudes. (teacher can make certain that reading and writing difficulties do not make capable students appear as though they do not understand the material)
Self-Assessments essential for teaching students how to manage their study habits, use learning strategies, and reflect on progress toward learning goals. Goal is to produce students who can learn independently of the teacher and become lifelong learners
Essential Question serve two critical purposes: clarify and frame the essential learning points and, at the same time, engage a student’s mind
Rubric a scoring guideline that clearly outlines the criteria for judging the quality of work; provides a descriptive scale for various levels of performance.
Assessment Map key to making certain you are designing a tool that assesses the most important standards-based skills and concepts
Modeling 1st requires teacher to demonstrate each step of a process, while students follow along using a rubric or checklist. Next, ask students to do a similar task while the teacher works w/them, followed by working steps w/a partner, & then finally alone.
Limited Vocabulary one of the most debilitating problems of low achievers
Homework The teacher should be quite certain the student has demonstrated an understanding of the skill to be practiced before assigning this. What is practiced tends to be remembered. The purpose is for students to practice skills they have learned.
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT) are simple methods to gauge what new knowledge students have absorbed, understood, applied; series of “informal research” tools and practices designed to give teachers accurate information about the quality of student learning
Effective Teachers use a variety of classroom assessment techniques, some formal and others informal, to determine how much and how well their students are learning.
Evidence Based Strategies includes: Employing effective classroom management procedures Grouping students for instruction (especially students with significant learning problems), Assessing readiness, and Teaching to the student’s zone of proximal development
Differentiated Instruction an approach whereby teachers adjust their curriculum and instruction to maximize the learning of all students: average learners, English language learners, struggling students, students with learning disabilities, and gifted and talented students.
Ongoing Assessment Rather than assessing students only at the end of a unit, teachers can use assessments before, during, and after teaching a unit to gather information critical to providing effective instruction.
Flexible Grouping To best address the learning needs of all students, teachers should use a variety of grouping methods—whole-group, small-group (usually no more than six students), or peer pairs—in addition to having students work independently.
Differentiate Instructional Elements Content—the knowledge and skills students need to master Process—the activities students use to master the content Product—the method students use to demonstrate learning
Re-authorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Provided funding incentives for states. States are required to establish their own education standards. Test is developed by the state. The overarching purpose is to hold public schools accountable for the academic achievement of their students.
Process-Oriented assessments provide insight into student thinking, reasoning, & motivation. Can provide diagnostic information on how well students use learning strategies & may lead to independent learning when students are asked to reflect on their learning & set goals to improve
Visible Criteria A fundamental tenet of performance-based assessment is the sharing of standards and making this evaluation available for students.
Standard A broad statement that describes what students should learn. Standards provide the framework for curriculum development. A prespecified level of performance that is considered satisfactory for the use to be made of the assessment results.
Benchmark Statements that follow a standard and clarify in broad terms what the standard means.
Instructional Objectives Specific statements that describe how students will demonstrate achievement; describe intended learning outcomes and clarify what standards and benchmarks mean.
Learning Outcomes Terms included in instructional objectives that describe the expected results of instruction.
Table of Specifications involves (1) selecting the learning outcomes to be tested, (2) outlining the subject matter, and (3) making a two-way chart. The two-way chart describes the sample of items to be included in the test.
Bias in Testing refers to construct-irrelevant components that result in systematically lower or higher scores for identifiable groups of examinees.
Percentage Correct Score The percentage of items that an individual answers correctly on a test, or the percentage of tasks an individual performs correctly on a performance assessment.
Measurement The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. Answers the question: “How much?”
Test An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior by posing a set of questions in a uniform manner. “How well does the individual perform—either in comparison with others or in comparison with a domain of performance tasks?”
Assessment Any of a variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance.
Formal Assessment Administered formally, with set of standardized requirements- possibly with a teacher’s guide that both timed and monitored.
Informal Assessment Administered informally to check for understanding and monitor progress.
Attitude Assessment (related to self-image and social acceptance) Typical performance- Determines what individuals will do under natural conditions
Aptitude Assessment (innate in nature, show “talent”) predict success in some future learning activity Maximum performance- Determines what individuals can do performing at their best
Restricted Performance Tasks (response) highly structured and limited in scope (example: construct a graph) no choice in the directions/instructions
Extended Performance Tasks (response) typically less well structured and broad in scope (example: design and conduct an experiment) open-ended, provides more choice for the students in the directions/instructions
Accomodations Do not change the expectations for learning Do not reduce the requirements of the task Examples: more time and/or different setting
Modifications Do change the expectations for learning Do reduce the requirements of the task Examples: reduce number of items, alternate assignments, lower-level reading assignments
Large Scale Assessments Tests for specific purpose that they are intended to serve and for the population that they will measure. Generated considerable controversy and inconsistency as states and districts attempt to measure student attainment of high standards.
Relative Grading When assigning grades on a relative basis, the students are typically ranked in order of performance (based on a set of test scores or combined assessment results).
Proficient used in a variety of ways, most commonly in reference to proficiency levels, scales, and cut-off scores on standardized tests and other forms of assessment. (in relation to standards)
Assessment Plan To be fully integrated with instruction, plans for assessment should be made during the planning for instruction. From the beginning of instruction to the end there are numerous decisions that teachers need to make.
System of Assessments offer information for distinctive purposes to different audiences: students, parents, teachers, administrators, and policymakers at the classroom, school, district, + state levels. May include large-scale assessments along with classroom assessments.
National Defense Act (NDEA) Response to Russia launching the Sputnik I satellite and the thread to national security; poured millions of dollars into creating new curricula for math and science public school programs, Funds to conduct objectives-based assessments followed
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) States were required to set challenging standards for student achievement; Also, required to develop and administer assessments to measure student progress towards those standards.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Requires states to include children with disabilities in general state and district-wide assessment programs, with appropriate accommodations where necessary.
Re-authorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)- Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) Holds all students to high academic standards, prepares all students for success in college and career, guarantees steps are taken to help students, and their school improve, reduces the burden of testing while maintaining annual information
Constructed Response assessment items that ask students to apply knowledge, skills, and critical thinking abilities to real-world, standards-driven performance tasks. Sometimes called “open-response” items,
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