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PrincipleMod 1

Questions from Module 1 of the Principles component

QuestionAnswer
2D images that consist of echoes from the X & Y axis. Can only e viewed one at a time or w/ minimal averaging techniques. Thin slice
4D real time image Thick slice
the ability to collect data from longitudinal, transverse, and coronal planes for reconstruction into 3-D format (shown on screen simultaneously) Multiplanar
The A plane is the aquisition plane
The B plane is 90 degrees to the A plane
The C plane is coronal (90 degrees to both A and B planes)
A 2D picture element pixel
A 3D volume element (dataset) voxel
What are some clinical uses of 3D sonography? OB, GYN/IVF, Vascular, Biopsies, Small Parts, Fetal Echo, Abdominal, Prostate, Neonatal Heads
Three orthagonal planes used in 3D sonography are Longitudinal (sagital), transverse (axial), coronal
Using a volume set of data taken from the three orthogonal planes to create a 3D image Rendering
Describe three techniques used for sonographic volume acquisition. Manual- operator physically moves transducer over body; Sensor Based-type of manual; ability to do volumetrics by way of sensor (GPS like); Automatic- Transducer does its own movement(all volumetric capabilities)
Identify five advantages of automatic sonographic volume acquisition. -no movement of probe; -fast acquisition; -uniform, consistent acquisition; -anatomy acquired as volume data; -accurate volume measurement;
Why has coronal plane reconstruction drawn clinical attention? It allows the acquisition of images that were not able to be seen before (ex. uterine horns)
Identify the following on a multiplanar sonographic display: render box The entire box on the image
Identify the following on a multiplanar sonographic display: render line The top line of the render box (passes through the common voxel)
Identify the following on a multiplanar sonographic display: curved render line Convex render line, created so that portions of the image are not cut off
Identify the following on a multiplanar sonographic display: common voxel The reference dot (point through which all three orthogonal planes intersect
Identify the following on a multiplanar sonographic display: render direction able to pay attention to specific details in a render box selection
Name two anechoic features found in a 1st trimester ultrasound yolk sac and amniotic fluid
Name the condition in which the placenta is attached to the uterine wall close to or covering the cervix placenta previa
Name the condition in which the placenta seperates from the uterine wall, possibly causing hemorrhage placental abruption
Identify the function, name and number of normal umbilical vessels. One umbilical vein- carries nutrients to baby from placenta (including oxygen rich blood); Two umbilical arteries- supply deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord
Identify why the following two render modes are useful for identifying facial cleft abnormalities?a.Surface renderingb.Maximum mode Surface rendering can identify a cleft lip; Maximum mode can identify a cleft palate (clearly views hyperechoic structures)
What does TUI stand for and what does it have in common with CT and MRI Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging; provides a simultaneous view of multiple slices of a volume data set
Why are these two render modes useful for displaying anechoic and hypoechoic fetal structures? Minimum mode and Inversion mode. Minimum mode-able to figure volume of structures; Inversion mode- displays hypoechoic structures in a clear inverted surface rendered display, while simultaneously removing information from the surrounding tissue.
How can the use of TUI change the practice of sonography? allows direct comparison of multiple (parallel) planes, saves time, provides more accurate analysis of anatomical structures
Created by: sbeard1