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PSYCH CH 10

FLASHCARDS FOR NOTEBOOK

TermDefinition
Thinking(cognition) 1.mental 2. info 3.processing Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information.
mental images 1. pictures 2. representation 3. objects/people/events picture-like representations that stand in for objects ior events.
concepts 1.ideas 2.categories 3.class ideas that represent a class or category of objects,evants or activities.
superordinate concept 1.general 2.concept 3 fruit the most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit"
basic level type 1.concept 2.organization 3.similar example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as dog or cat.
subordinate concept 1 add-ons 2.concepts the most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog or a pear in one's hand.
formal concept 1. specific 2. rules 3. detailed concept that is defined by specific rules or features.
natural concept 1.context(real world) 2. experiences formed as a result if someone's experiences in the real world.
prototype 1. model 2.similar 3. concept an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
problem solving 1. goal 2. solution 3. issues process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.
trial and error 1. experiment 2. Rube Goldberg 3. problem solving problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.
algorithm 1. following directions 2.procedure a very specific, step-by-step procedure for solving a certain type of problem.
heuristic 1 Rule of Thumb 2. Experience 3. guess an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem
representatives heuristic 1. share 2. object 3. others the tendency to believe that any object that shares characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category.
subgoaling 1. break-down 2. goals 3. small process of breaking a goal down into smaller goals,
means-end analysis 1.goal 2. beginning 3.reduction heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
artificial intelligence 1. nonhuman 2.machine 3. thinking the creation if a machine that can think like a human.
functional fixedness 1. thinking 2, typical a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
mental set 1.patterns 2. past 3. persistence tendency for people ti persist in using probem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
confirmation bias 1, disregard 2. search 3. evidence the tendency to search for evidence that fis one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
creativity 1. inspiration 2. variation 3. differences the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
Convergent thinking 1. one solution 2.variation a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic.
divergent thinking 1 starting point 2. build up 3. single answer type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point.
conjunction fallacy 1. error 2 specific 3. higher probability the error if believing specific conditions are more probable than a single general one.
availability heuristic 1. estimate 2. probability\ 3. instances tendency to estimate the probability of a certain condition or event based on how many similar instances we can recall.
anchoring effect 1. consideration 2. all possibilities the tendency to consider all of the info available even when it is irrelevant.
gambler's fallacy 1.occurrence 2. recent 3. odds(chances) The belief that the chance of something occurring depends on whether it has recently occurred.
loss aversion 1. sensitive 2. pontential 3. actual the tendency to be more sensitive to actual or potential losses than to gains.
intelligence 1. learn 2. experience 3. adapt the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively iin adapting to new situations or solving problems.
g factor 1 general 2. reason 3. solve ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence
s factor 1. specific 2. excel the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence
triarchic theory of intelligence 1. three' 2. Sternberg 3. intelligence Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
analytical intelligence 1. break down 2. analyze 3, components the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving
creative intelligence 1.variation 2. inspiration 3.problem solving the ability to dea with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems.
pratical intelligence 1.informaion 2.succeed 3. career the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful
emotional intelligence 1.awareness 2.management 3.empathise the awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, empathise and socially skilled.
standardization 1. ACT 2. SAT 3. Test process of giving a test to a large group of people that represents the population for whom the test is designed.
mean 1. average 2. scores 3. group the average score within a group of scores.
Standard deviation 1. average 2. variation 3. mean statistical measure of the average variation from the mean score.
developmentally delayed 1. learning deficiency 2.abnormal 3. development condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age.
gifted 1 IQ 2. intelligence 3. population term used to describe the 2% of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically an IQ of 130 or above.
IQ 1. intelligence 2.age 3.mental age number representing a measure of intelligence resulting from the division of one's mental age by one's chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100.
deviation IQ scores 1. mean 2.standard deviation type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15.
cultural bias 1.personalized 2. IQ test 3. variation tendency of IQ tests to reflect in language, dialect, and content the culture of the test designers.
Created by: tconly