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Intro to Psych1

Vocabulary and Other Information

Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Independent Variable The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent Variable The experimental factor--in psychology, the behavior or mental process--that is being measured; the variable may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Random Sample A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Illusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where none exists
Hypothesis A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
False-consensus Effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Control Treatment The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Operational Definition A statement of the procedures(operations) useed to define research variables
Case Study An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Placebo Effect Effects triggered by the active agent are triggered by an inert substance of condition instead of the active agent
Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people and require their cooperation
Double Blind An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo
Single Blind The participants are blind to what they have received
Standard Deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Mean The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Mode The most frequently occurring score in a distribution
Scatterplot A grphaed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
Normal Distribution A pattern for distribution that follows a bell-shaped curve.
Skewed Distribution A set of values that deviates from normal distribution
Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Explain how it often leads us to perceive psychological research as merely common sense.
Created by: clarefitz