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# Intro to Psych1

### Vocabulary and Other Information

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Hindsight Bias | The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it |

Overconfidence | The tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments |

Independent Variable | The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied |

Dependent Variable | The experimental factor--in psychology, the behavior or mental process--that is being measured; the variable may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable |

Random Sample | A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion |

Random Assignment | Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups |

Illusory Correlation | The perception of a relationship where none exists |

Hypothesis | A testable prediction, often implied by a theory |

False-consensus Effect | The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors |

Control Treatment | The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment |

Operational Definition | A statement of the procedures(operations) useed to define research variables |

Case Study | An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation |

Correlation | A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other |

Placebo Effect | Effects triggered by the active agent are triggered by an inert substance of condition instead of the active agent |

Survey | A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people and require their cooperation |

Double Blind | An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo |

Single Blind | The participants are blind to what they have received |

Standard Deviation | A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score |

Mean | The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores |

Median | The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it |

Mode | The most frequently occurring score in a distribution |

Scatterplot | A grphaed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation |

Normal Distribution | A pattern for distribution that follows a bell-shaped curve. |

Skewed Distribution | A set of values that deviates from normal distribution |

Range | The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution |

Explain how it often leads us to perceive psychological research as merely common sense. | |