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Digital Imaging

Abbreviations and Terminology

ADC Analog to Digital Converter
CPU Central Processing Unit
CR Computed Radiography
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DR Direct Radiography Direct Digital Radiography
IP Imaging Plate
PACS Picture Archiving Communication System
PMT Photomultiplier Tube
ROM Read Only Memory
RAM Random Access Memory
RF Radio Frequency
HL7 Health Level 7 - standard protocol used for medical data systems
EMR Electronic Medical Record
CCD Charge Coupled Device
PRIEF Partition Recognition of Irradiated Exposed Fields
EDR Exposure Data Recognition
ACR American College of Radiology
bit single unit of data, binary digit, an 8 bit ADC encodes 256 values
bus system of controls that connects various components of computer system
byte made up of 8 bits and is the memory needed to store one alphanumeric character
dynamic range the shades of gray that can be represented
edge enhancement increases in contrast due to high-pass filtering; also known as sharpening
lattitude the range of exposures that will produce densities within the diagnostic range; the range between the minimum and maximum exposures that will produce and acceptable range of densities for diagnostic purposes
matrix the layout of rows and columns of pixels
noise random background information /quantum mottle /grainy appearance
pixel the picture element box of a digital image
program data operating instructions
resolution the ability to distinguish 2 adjacent details as being separate and distant from each other
quantum mottle graininess caused by a lack of sufficient incoming data to process an image also known as quantum noise
voxel three-dimensional volume correlating to each pixel
partitioned pattern recognition recogntion of divided exposure patterns
exposure field recognition Fiji system's method of locating the raw data
histogram graphic representation of pixels and signal intensities present in an image; generated by dividing a scanned area into pixels and determining the signal intensity for each pixel; can be calculated for specific anatomy and procedures
look-up-table reference histogram of the luminance values cerived during image acquisition
image stitching process of "sewing" together multiple images to form one continous image
direct aquisition the direct conversion of x-ray energy to electrical signals without the light-conversion step
indirect acquisition 2 step process in which x-ray photons are converted to light and then the light photons are converted to an electrical signal
data clipping clinically irrelevant data is not included in image display
flat panel detector descriptive term used for the plates used in both direct and indirect digital systems
flat field detector detector that consists of a photo-conductor which holds a charge on its surface that can be read out by a thin-film transistor
HIS Hospital Information System
RIS Radiology Information System
RAID redundant array of independent disks
JPEG The Joint Photographic Experts Group
DAS direct attached storage
soft copy computer image
hard copy printed image
jukebox storage system that houses removable media and robotics to deliver the digital media
compression a mathematical reduction of the size of a piece of data to reduce the amount of time needed to transmit the data or the amount of space needed to store it.
lossless Reduces the size of a piece of data so the process can be mathematically reversed perfectly. There is no loss of information.
lossy There will be loss of image information that can never be completely reversed.
redundancy able to store and retrive digital images multiple ways
reliability able to move images back and forth without interuption
shuttering used to blacken out the white collimation borders in a digital image, effectively eliminating glare
cropping post processing elimination of some of the areas within the digital image where the exposed area of the patient part was exposed with radiation. Violation of ALARA and ASRT Code of Ethics.
Nyquist theorem when sampling a signal such as the conversion from an analog to a digital image, the sampling freguency must be greater than twice the bandwidth of the input signal so that the reconstruction of the original image will be nearly perfect
bandwidth the frequency response from the incoming signal
band-pass filtering amplifies or deletes all but the selected range or band of frequencies
characteristic curve a radiographic relationship between the amount of exposure and the resultant density on the image; also known as the Hurter and Driffield curve (H&D curve); also called the D log E curve
DQE detective quantum efficiency ; measurement of how efficiently a system converts x-ray input signal into a useful output image
EI exposure index
S number sensitivity; how you know the exposure factors were set properly
Created by: srobinso