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Module 1 Final

Pharmacology

TermDefinition
Opioids codeine sulfate, fentanyl, hydromorphone, meperidine, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, hydrocodone
Non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen, tramadol, lydocaine
acetaminophen analgesic that reduces pain and fever
antidote for acetaminophin acetylcysteine
antidote for beta blockers glucagon
anitdote for opioid drugs nalaxone
antidote for benzodiazepines Flumazenil (Romazicon)
anitdote for carbonmonoxide poisoning oxygen
antidote for insecticides (organophosphates) atropine
nursing process ADPIE
1. Right of Medication Administration 1. Right Patient
2. Right of Medication Administration 2. Right Medication
3. Right of Medication Administration 3. Right Dose
4.Right of Medication Administration 4. Right Time
5. Right of Medication Administration 5. Right Route
6. Right of Medication Administration 6. Right Documentation
7. Right of Medication Administration 7. Right Reason
8. Right of Medication Administration 8. Right Response
9. Right of Medication Administration 9. Right to refuse
right patient requires confirmation of a patient's identity with two forms of identification before drug administration name/ date of birth
right medication check medication label and order 3 times
Fastest route of administration IV (parenteral) goes straight to bloodstream avoids first pass effect
The IV route is the fastest route of medication administration because: highest bioavailability
bioavailable available for the body to use
Normal albumin levels 3.5-5 g/dL
avoid grapefruit with Ca channel blockers, thyroid meds, statins, SSRI, SNRI, cephalosporin
the most involved organ in biotransformation is the liver
CYP 450 inhibitors decreases metabolism of drugs
grapefruit is an inhibitor leads to toxicity
CYP 450 inducers increases metabolism of drugs (speeds up)
nicotine is an inducer leads to toxicity
normal creatinine level less than 1.2 mg/dL
steady state amount excreted = amount absorbed
Pediatric lifespan consideration- fat content is low which decreases absorption of many drugs and leads to toxicity
Pharmacokinetic phases absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
older adult lifespan considerations for absorption polypharmacy- increases chance of drug interactions, gastric pH is less acidic, gastric emptying is slowed, blood flow to GI tract is reduced (less cardiac output)
polypharmacy increases chance of drug interactions
3.5-5 normal albumin level
older adult lifespan considerations for distribution increased fat content- increases absorption of many drugs (need smaller doses), lower albumin levels (decreased protein production)
older adult lifespan consideration for metabolism slower metabolism, decreased blood flow to liver affects liver and albumin levels, decreased liver function- greater risk for toxicity
older adult lifespan considerations for excretion GFR decreased
pharmacogenetics genetic basis for variations in body's response to drugs
hypertensive drugs that work better for african americans Ca channel blockers
asians are more susceptible to antipsychotics and anesthisia
environmental factors can contribute to pharmacokinetics of drugs high fat diet means increased absorption of many drugs, malnutrition can alter ability to absorb/eliminate meds
altered ability to absorb/ eliminate medication because of malnutrition is an concern with alcoholics
Created by: lisaeln
 

 



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