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PHT614 Final CN

Cranial Nerves

In what type of CN will the cell bodies be found in GANGLIA OUTSIDE of the brainstem? Sensory
In what type of CN will the cell bodies be located in NUCLEI INSIDE of the brainstem? Motor
Autonomic CN have ____ ganglionics & ____ganglionics. pre, post
Autonomic ____ganglionics are in nuclei ______ brainstem. Pre, within
Autonomic postganglionics in ______ ganglia are associated with cranial nerves. sensory
What CN? Smell I Olfactory
What CN? Vision II Optic
What CN Moves eyes up, ______, medially; constricts _______? III Oculomotor, down, pupil
What CN Moves eye ______ and down? IV Trochlear, medially
What CN function is _____ sensation, chewing? V Trigeminal, facial
What CN abducts eye? VI Abducens
What CN function is _____ expression, closes eye, tears, salivation and _____? VII Facial, facial, taste
What CN function is sensation of _____ position relative to gravity and head movement and _______? VIII Vestibulocochlear
What CN function is _____, salivation and taste? IX Glossopharyngeal, swallowing
What CN regulates viscera, swallowing, _____ and taste? X Vagus, speech
What CN elevates shoulders and turns the ____? XI Accessory, head
What CN moves the tongue? XII Hypoglossal
These are found on bipolar sensory neurons in olfactory neuroepithelium of upper nasal cavities. Chemoreceptors
T/F The axons of the chemoreceptors form the olfactory nerve. True
Tufted and mitral cells make up this structure in CN I, Olfactory. Olfactory Bulb
_____ of tufted and mitral cells make up the ______ tract. Axons, Olfactory
Where is the 'primary olfactory cortex' located? Piriform cortex in the medial temporal lobe
These collect light and relay signal to _____ ganglion cells in inner layer of retina. Photoreceptors
The axons of retinal ganglion cells that exit the eye make up this: optic nerve
Where do the axons originating in the nasal retinas cross from one side to the other? Optic chiasm
The optic nerves from both eyes combine to form the _____ optic chiasm
Only these axons decussate at the optic chiasm. nasal retinas
Axons of _____ projections form the optic ____. retinofugal, tracts
The optic tracts project to the ______ geniculate nucleus of thalamus. lateral
The neurons in the ____ give rise to axons that project to the ____ visual cortex. LGN, primary
Reflexive responses of pupil Awareness of light and dark Orienting the head and eyes Projects to brainstem nuclei
CN III, innervates _____ palpebrae superioris muscle, which lifts the ____. levator, eyelid
CN ____, innervates the superior _____, which moves the pupil ___. III Oculomotor, rectus, up
CN III, Oculomotor, innervates this eye muscle that moves the pupil ______. Medial rectus muscle, medial
CN III, Oculmotor, innervates this muscle that moves the pupil ____. Inferior rectus, down
CN III innervates the ____ rectus, which moves the pupil ____, if eye adducted; ____ eye, if eye abducted. inferior, up, rotates
What muscle constricts pupil? Innervated by CN? pupillary sphincter, III oculomotor
CN III, innervates the _____ muscle, which ____ curvature of lens of eye. ciliary, increases
If eye is _____, pupil down and in, if eye _____, rotates eye. What muscle and what CN innervates it? adducted, abducted, superior oblique, IV trochlear
CN VI Abducens, innervates this eye muscle that moves the pupil _____. lateral rectus, lateral
The pupillary reflex controls the ____ of the pupil in response to ____. diameter, light
crossed reflex in which light directed at one eye causes the opposite pupil to contract consensual reflex
The process by which the increases optical power to maintain a clear image (focus) on an object as it draws near the eye accommodation
Pupillary constriction Accommodation Convergence of eyes Accommodation reflex
Abnormalities of ____ and eye movements are often a warning sign of pathology of ____ or cranial nerves. pupils, brainstem
Blurring strabismus
double vision diplopia
When ____ muscles are not working correctly, strabismus or ____ develops. extraocular, diplopia
Symptoms of Oculomotor nerve lesion: Lateral strabismus Pupil dilated & unresponsive to ____ Ptosis CN III Palsy, light
Symptoms of Oculomotor nerve lesion: CN IV Palsy _____ eye cannot be depressed Vertical ______ Adducted, strabismus
Symptoms of Oculomotor nerve lesion: CN __ Palsy _____ strabismus VI, medial
Oculmotor Nerve Lesions: Common Causes for what CN? Diabetic neuropathy Head trauma (shearing force) Intracranial aneurysms III
Oculmotor Nerve Lesions: Common Causes for what CN? Most commonly injured CN with head trauma, tumors and aneurysms IV
Oculmotor Nerve Lesions: Common Causes for what CN? Head trauma, tumors, aneurysms VI
T/F The trigeminal nerve is sensory alone. False, sensory and motor
Sensory portion trigeminal nerve innervates: face temporomandibular joint ____ of eye oral ______ cornea, cavity
The motor portion of the trigeminal nerve innervates what muscles? mastication
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal cranial nerve? Ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
Opthalmic branch of CN V is sensory, motor, both? sensory
Maxillary branch of CN V is sensory, motor, both? sensory
Mandibular branch of CN V is sensory, motor, both? sensory and motor
Trigeminal - Proprioception Sensory afferents of muscles of ____ and extraocular muscles -> ____ nucleus(midbrain) -> reticular formation -> unknown mastication, mesencephalic
Collaterals of ____ fibers to trigeminal ___ nucleus (relex connections) and ____ (motor coordination) proprioceptive, motor, cerebellum
Trigeminal: Pain & Temp Trigeminal ____ -> descend in ____ and medulla as spinal tract of trigeminal nerve -> spinal trigeminal ___ -> trigeminothalamic tract ->___ thalamus -> ____ cortex ganglion, pons, nucleus, VPM, somatosensory
Ipsilateral loss of sensation to head, face and oral cavity Lesion to trigeminal nerve - sensory
Dysfunction of trigeminal nerve that produces severe sharp, stabbing pain in distribution of one or more branches of trigeminal nerve. Trigeminal Neuralgia (tic douloureux)
Weakness in chewing, jaw deviates to affected side Lesion of trigeminal nerve - motor
Facial CN - (Sensory) Touch, pain and pressure of what structures? tongue, pharynx, external auditory meatus
Facial CN - Chemosensation anterior ___ tongue (sweet, salty, sour) 2/3
Facial CN motor is parsympathetic or sympathetic? parasympathetic
Facial CN motor portion innvervates lacrimal glands and tear ducts salivary glands nasal and palantine glands
Facial CN: Motor (parasymp) Superior _____ nucleus (medulla) -> parasympathetic ganglia salivatory
Facial CN: Motor (Somatic) Muscles that close ____, move lips and produce ____ expressions ______ muscle eyes, facial, stapedius
The ___ portion of facial nucleus consists of LMN's that receive ___ input from corticobulbar fibers. dorsal, bilateral
____ portion of facial nucleus innervated by fibers from ___ cerebral cortex (UMN's) ventral, contralateral
Ability to wrinkle ____ is used to distinguish UMN from LMN injury forehead
Muscles of forehead will be spared even while lower facial regions are not i.e. cerebral vascular accident UMN lesion of CN VII
Injury to facial nerve, peripheral branches or facial nucleus LMN lesion of CN VII
Symptoms: Little or no facial expression Mouth on affected side may droop Speech may be affected Cannot close affected eye and blink reflex is lost External blow to face, viral infection, overexposure to cold weather Bell's Palsy
Information related to head position and head movements Vestibular Branch, CN VIII
Information related to hearing Cochlear Branch, CN VIII
Structure in inner ear that houses sensory receptors related to cranial nerve VIII labyrinth
Two structures within labyrinth vestibular apparatus, cochlea
*Snail shell-shaped organ formed by spiraling, fluid-filled tube *Organ of Corti Cochlea
Organ of ___ contains ___ receptors called hair cells which are attached to the ____ membrane. Corti, auditory, basilar
Projections from hair cells embedded in ___ membrane, move when fluid in ____ duct moves in response to ___ waves. tectorial, cochlear, sound
Hair cells closely associated with ___ fibers that make up the cochlear branch of CN VIII afferent
The ___ is the region of the inner ear where ___ waves are converted first into fluid waves, then into ___ signals, and finally into AP's. cochlea, sound, chemical
The ___ vibrates against the ____ window, transferring sound into the _____. stapes, oval, cochlea
Hair cells in the ____ of ____ convert fluid wave energy into ____ release. organ, corti, neurotransmitter
REsidual energy from the sound waves returns to the ___ ear at the membrane known as the ___ window. middle, round
Sound waves strike ___ membrane -> Ossicles move, vibration of membrane -> ___ of fluid in upper chamber -> vibration of ___ membrane and attached hair cells -> hairs embedded in __ membrane bend, depolarizing -> cochlear nerve ending __ tympanic, movement, basilar, tectorial, activated
Organ of __ -> cochlear nuclei -> ___ formation -> activates entire nervous system corti, reticular formation
organ of corti ->___ nuclei -> inferior colliculus ->superior colliculus -> orienting ___ and head toward sound cochlear, eyes
organ of corti -> cochlear nuclei -> __ geniculate body (receives info from inferior colliculus as well) ->primary ___ cortex -> conscious hearing medial, auditory
Deafness lesion of vestibulocochlear nerve
Transmission of vibrations is prevented in outer or middle ear conductive deafness
Damage to receptor cells, cochlear nerve or brain sensorineural deafness
Soft palate and pharynx, external auditory meatus sensory (pain) of CN IX, glossopharyngeal
CN IX: chemosensation from ___ tongue (bitter) posterior
CN IX innervates this muscle that elevates the larynx and pharynx, aids in swallowing stylopharyngeus
The ___ salivary gland is the parasympathetic motor component of CN IX, glossopharyngeal. parotid
Sensory afferent in pharynx (CN IX) → spinal nucleus (dorsal medulla) → interneurons → nucleus ambiguus (lateral medulla) → CN X → pharynx muscles gag reflex (CN IX)
Symptoms: Loss of taste posterior 1/3 or tongue Loss of sensation posterior tongue and palate Loss of gag reflex Decreased salivation (bc of parasymp innerv of parotid gland?) Lesions of glossopharyngeal nerve
*Visceral afferents *taste from palate and epiglottis *Somesthetic impulses from back of ear Sensory of CN X
Vagus nerve innervates what structures used for swallowing and speaking? larynx, pharynx and upper esophagus
The vagus nerve has parasympathetic functions with what organs/systems of the body? heart, pulmonary system, esophagus and gastrointestinal tract
Transient tachycardia Dypsnea- difficulty breathing Poor digestion (decreased peristalis, digestive enzymes) Lesions of Vagus nerve - visceral branch
Dysphonia Dysphagia Dysarthria lesions of vagus nerve - skeletal muscle branch
hoarse voice dysphonia
difficulty swallowing dysphagia
difficulty articulating words clearly, slurring dysarthria
innervates traps and SCM accessory
Arises from spinal accessory nucleus in upper cervical cord CN XI - Motor
Ipsilateral weakness of shoulder shrug and turning head away from lesion lesions of accessory nerve
nuclei of CN XII, Hypoglossal are located here medulla
CN XII innervates the intrinsic and ___ muscles of ipsilateral ____ extrinsic, tongue
Ipsilateral deviation of tongue on side of lesion; lick ur lesion lesion of hypoglossal nerve
Created by: sunnyfla



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