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CMFSection1

Glossary for Change and the Individual

TermDefinition
Action learning set A group, typically of six to eight people, who meet regularly to share and learn from each other's experiences.
Activist In Honey and Mumford's characterisation of Kolb's learning cycle, one who has a preference for concrete experience.
Autonomy One of Pink's three motivators for satisfaction and growth. Autonomy allows people to be self-directed.
BAU Normal operations, as opposed to project, programme, or change activity.
Benefits realisation plan A plan typically including benefit owners, a summary of the benefits of the change initiative, expected benefits realisation timings and a schedule of benefits reviews.
Bridges, William William Bridges (Managing Transitions, 2009) distinguishes between change - the actual events, activities and steps that can be put into a diary or project plan - and transition - the human, psychological process of letting go of one pattern and engaging with a new one.
Business as usual Normal operations, as opposed to project, programme, or change activity.
Change Curve An ordered set of characteristic responses that individuals often exhibit in response to an unwelcome change. An adaptation of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief observed in terminally ill hospital patients. Typically extended to seven stages (Shock, Denial, Anger, Bargaining & Self Blame, Depression & Confusion, Acceptance, Problem Solving) when applied to organisational change.
Change Initiative Any intentional change process, including those constituted formally as a change portfolio, change programme or change project.
Change Management The formal process of setting in place structures, processes and resources to ensure that making an alteration to the way an organisation operates is done in an orderly and effective manner.
Change Management Institute A non-profit body founded to research, codify and foster capability in the management of change on organisations, founded in 2005. www.change-management-institute.com.
Change Management Institute's Change Management Body of Knowledge CMBoK. One of the two reference texts for the Change Management Foundation and Practitioner accreditation, the other being the Effective Change Manager's Handbook.
Change management plan A plan typically including change impact, organisational change readiness, capability and capacity for change, meeting key learning needs and achievement of out comes.
CMBoK The Change Management Institute's Change Management Body of Knowledge. One of the two reference texts for the Change Management Foundation and Practitioner accreditation, the other being the Effective Change Manager's Handbook.
CMI Change Management Institute, founded in 2005. www.change-management-institute.com.
Congruence The first of Carl Rogers' three core conditions that characterise the quality of relationship necessary to growth. It requires that the relationship is authentic and genuine.
Conscious Competence The third of the four stages of the 'conscious competence' learning model, in which the practitioner is able to demonstrate high performance in a task only by conscious effort (i.e. concentration).
Conscious Incompetence The second of the four stages of the 'conscious competence' learning model, in which the practitioner recognises their lack of one or more specific elements of capability necessary for high performance in a task.
Delivery plan A plan typically including the timing and sequence of key implementation tasks, delivery of outputs and transition to business as usual.
Disconfirmation Creating the disturbing belief that the current position is not sustainable, that it is not working any more.
Dissatisfiers In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, those factors which do not motivate, but will demotivate if they are missing (e.g comfortable office furniture). Also known as Hygiene factors.
ECMH The Effective Change Manager's Handbook. One of the two reference texts for the Change Management Foundation and Practitioner accreditation, the other being the CMBoK, the Change Management Institute's Change Management Body of Knowledge.
Effective Change Manager's Handbook ECMH. One of the two reference texts for the Change Management Foundation and Practitioner accreditation, the other being the CMBoK, the Change Management Institute's Change Management Body of Knowledge.
Empathy The third of Carl Rogers' three core conditions that characterise the quality of relationship necessary to growth. It requires that the relationship involves a willingness to understand the other within their own frame of reference.
Endings Bridges (Managing Transitions, 2009) describes this as a time when it is recognised that some elements of current ways of working will be let go. It is a time of celebration of the success that was achieved with them. It is the first of Bridges' three Phases of Transition.
Expectancy Theory The importance of thinking in human motivation. Originally considered by Tolman & Vroom, Huczinsky & Buchanan suggested that the motivating force to do anything is a function of Valency(how it is valued), Expectancy(the extent to which effort will lead to good performance) and Instrumentality (the link between good performance and reward).
Extrinsic In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, a term applied to those factors which do not motivate, but will demotivate if they are missing (e.g a safe working environment). Also known as Hygiene factors and Dissatisfiers, these factors are about the context in which work takes place rather than the work itself.
Herzberg, Frederick Frederick Herzberg proposed the Motivator-Hygiene theory, which distinguishes between factors that do not motivate but can demotivate (e.g. inadequate toilet facilities) and those that do increase motivation (e.g. recognition of achievement).
Hierarchy of Needs Maslow identified five levels of need (Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self-actualistion), each of which requires satisfaction of its predecessor before it can become an individual's focus of attention.
Honey and Mumford Extended Kolb's learning cycle to characterise those who have a preference for one or other style of learning. The four characterisations are: Activist, Reflector, Pragmatist and Theorist.
Honey, Peter Collaborated with Alan Mumford to develop Honey and Mumford's elaboration of Kolb's learning cycle.
Hygiene Factors In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, those factors which do not motivate, but will demotivate if they are missing (e.g comfortable office furniture). Also known as Dissatisfiers.
Intrinsic In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, a term applied to those factors which motivate and generally lead to higher performance (e.g greater responsibility). Also known as Satisfiers and Motivators, these factors are about the work itself rather than the context in which work takes place.
Kolb, David David Kolb. Kolb proposed a cyclical process of learning. The cycle has no fixed entry point, but in order comprises Concrete experience, Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualisation and Practical experimentation.
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth Elisabeth Kubler-Ross identified a common cycle of emotions felt by terminally ill patients. The five stages of grief she described has been widely adapted and applied to other situations, including change. While there is no experimental evidence to support this application, it has been seen to apply in specific circumstances by very many change practitioners.
Learning Anxiety An individual's concern that proposed new ways of working cannot be learned and adopted, leading to a reluctance to change.
Learning Cycle A cyclical process of learning proposed by David Kolb. The cycle has no fixed entry point, but in order comprises: Concrete experience, Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualisation and Practical experimentation.
Learning Dip The temporary reduction in performance that occurs when a competent individual adopts revised procedures in the execution of a task.
Learning preferences A characterisation developed by Honey and Mumford of the essential characteristics of those who have a preference for one of the four phases of Kolb's learning cycle. The four characterisations are: Activist, Reflector, Pragmatist and Theorist.
Learning styles A characterisation developed by Honey and Mumford of the essential characteristics of those who have a preference for one of the four phases of Kolb's learning cycle. The four characterisations are: Activist, Reflector, Pragmatist and Theorist.
Managing Transitions A book by William Bridges in which he introduces a new model distinguishing between Change and Transition. He proposes three Phases of Transition: Endings, Neutral Zone and New Beginnings.
Maslow, Abraham Abraham Maslow identified five levels of need (Physiological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self-actualistion), each of which requires satisfaction of its predecessor before it can become an individual's focus of attention.
Mastery One of Pink's three motivators for satisfaction and growth. It is the achievement of high degrees of competence and capability in a valued area of activity.
MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. A self-assessment questionnaire that identifies one's preferences in each of four pairs regarding perception and decision-making. The four pairs are: extravert-introvert, sensing-intuiting, thinking-feeling and judging-perceiving.
Motivators In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, those factors which motivate individuals to higher performance (e.g promotion). Also known as Satisfiers.
Mumford, Alan Collaborated with Peter Honey to develop Honey and Mumford's elaboration of Kolb's learning cycle.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI. A self-assessment questionnaire that identifies one's preferences in each of four pairs regarding perception and decision-making. The four pairs are: extravert-introvert, sensing-intuiting, thinking-feeling and judging-perceiving.
Neutral Zone Bridges (Managing Transitions, 2009) describes it as as a time of confusion and depression but as a time when there is sufficient fluidity for experimentation, a time when genuinely new attitudes and behaviours can be developed. It is the second of Bridges' three Phases of Transition.
New Beginnings Bridges (Managing Transitions, 2009) describes it as as a time of risk as individuals commit to new ways, modes and models of working. It is the last of Bridges' three Phases of Transition.
Pink, Dan Dan Pink has engaged in considerable research into what motivates people in the work place, making significant discoveries regarding differences between motivation in cognitive and non-cognitive tasks.
Pragmatist In Honey and Mumford's characterisation of Kolb's learning cycle, one who has a preference for practical experimentation.
Purpose One of Pink's three motivators for satisfaction and growth. It is the sense that work has meaning and value.
Reflector In Honey and Mumford's characterisation of Kolb's learning cycle, one who has a preference for reflective observation.
Rogers, Carl Carl Rogers performed research on the conditions required for personal growth, identifying three core conditions that characterise the quality of relationship necessary to growth: Congruence (Authenticity / Integrity), Unconditional positive regard (Acceptance / Respect) and Empathy (use of the subject's own frame of reference).
Motivator-Hygiene Theory The outcome of Herzberg's research on motivation in the work place. He identified two principal groups: Dissatifiers, or Hygiene factors, for which some baseline measure was required to avoid negative job satisfaction, and Satisfiers, or Motivators, for which increased levels increased job satisfaction.
Satisfiers In Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene theory, those factors which motivate individuals to higher performance (e.g personal development). Also known as Motivators.
Schein, Edgar Edgar Schein proposes that two opposing mental states are involved with change: Survival Anxiety (the current state is not sustainable and I must change in order to survive) and Learning Anxiety (I'm not sure I'm up to the challenge that lies ahead). Survival anxiety must be encouraged to promote change, while learning anxiety (which can be expected to increase with survival anxiety) must be managed. This model is often considered in conjunction with Lewin's three step model.
Survival Anxiety An individual's level of concern that the current state is not sustainable, leading to a willingness to change.
Theorist In Honey and Mumford's characterisation of Kolb's learning cycle, one who has a preference for abstract conceptualisation.
Transition Bridges (Managing Transitions, 2009) distinguishes between change - the actual events, activities and steps that can be put into a diary or project plan; and transition - the human, psychological process of letting go of one pattern and engaging with a new one.
Unconditional positive regard The second of Carl Rogers' three core conditions that characterise the quality of relationship necessary to growth. It requires that the relationship includes acceptance of and respect for the other.
Unconscious Competence The last of the four stages of the 'conscious competence' learning model, in which the practitioner is able to demonstrate high performance in a task without conscious effort.
Unconscious Incompetence The first of the four stages of the 'conscious competence' learning model, in which the practitioner is unaware of one or more elements of capability necessary for high performance in a task.
Created by: Hilary Small
 

 



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