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RAD271-Patient Care

Infection Control

What is a microorganism? What are the types? Bacteria (single cell, simple internal organization); Virus (intracellular parasite - cannot live outside host); Fungi (dimorphic - grow in 2 diff forms); Parasites (protozoa - larger than bacteria but no cell wall, motile)
What is Pathogenicity? ability of microorganism to produce disease; how does microorganism make patient or tech sick?
What is virulence? degree of pathogenicity of infectious microorganism; how sick can the microorganism make patient or tech?
What is infection? invasion and multiplication of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites)
What is colonization? multiplication of organism
What is flora? microorganisms of human body (normal-naturally occurring on our body/resident-microorganisms that live on us that don't make us sick (carrier)/transient-transfer of natural or resident bacteria to another human);
What is endogenous flora? *overgrowth of normal flora (makes us sick b/c out of balance) *can result from treatment w/broad spectrum antimicrobial drug that alters normal flora
Describe Transient flora. *acquired by contact with an object on which they are present (tube/table/pillow/etc)
Describe the establishment of disease. 6 steps for microorganism to demonstrate disease: a) Encounter b) Entry c) Spread (must overcome host immune system) d) Multiplication (incubation) e) Damage (now making patient sick) f) Outcome (1 - fight it off/2 - established/3 - compromise)
Describe the Chain of Infection. 4 essential links 1 - HOST 2 - INFECTIOUS ORGANISM 3 - MODE OF TRANSMISSION (exogenous or endogenous) 4 - RESERVOIR (site where organism lives/transmits disease)
What are bloodboarne pathogens? disease causing microorganisms in human blood MOST COMMON - HBV and HIV other examples... Hep C, Hep D, Syphilis
Describe HBV. Hepatitis B virus *highly contagious *attacks liver *swelling, soreness/loss of normal liver function *signs and symptoms: ***weakness, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, abdo pain, fever, headache **jaundice **asymptomatic *long term effects w/o vaccine
Describe HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus *affects immune system *causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome *Signs/Symptoms **Weight loss **Fatigue **gland pain/swell **muscle/joint pain **night sweats *can take up to 1yr to show positive for HIV antibodies
Describe other hospital diseases. Hep C - blood/body fluids Hep A - fecal/oral route MRSA/VRSA - commonly found on humans (no risk if healthy) VRE - enterococci bacteria in feces (most common UTI) TB - airborne Rubella - (not measles) German Measles
Describe types of infections Nosocomial - (HAI) acquired in course of medical care (UTI - keep urine bag below bladder); Iatrogenic - results from particular treatment/procedure (physician); Community acquired - person brings infection into hospital
Describe the cycle of infection - specifically list the 6 aspects. a) pathogen b) reservoir c) portal of exit d) mode of transmission 1. direct 2. indirect
What is the difference between MEDICAL and SURGICAL ASEPSIS? MEDICAL - reduces #, growth/spread by soap, water, friction and chemical disinfectants SURGICAL - elimination of all microorganisms/spores by heat/chemical means
What does ASEPSIS mean? without infection; freedom of infection
Describe MEDICAL ASEPSIS. reduces #/growth/spread by soap/water/friction and chemical disinfectants; CLEAN tech/DIRTY tech-one tech responsible for equipment (CLEAN) /other for patient(DIRTY=germs) and anything that comes in contact with patient **USED AT ALL TIMES (wash hands)
Describe SURGICAL ASEPSIS. Eliminates all microorganisms/spores by heat/chemical means STERILE technique/fields RULES - specific rules to follow to create STERILE
Describe purpose of STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Universal Precautions used to prevent spread of bloodborne pathogens(blood/body fluids) APPLIES TO ALL PATIENTS AT ALL TIMES! Wash hands, use PPE, including masks, gloves, gowns, cover mouth sneeze/cough away from patient ANY CONTACT POSES A RISK !
What are the most common bloodborne pathogens? HIV Hep B
What are specifics of STANDARD PRECAUTIONS. -Hand washing -GLOVES -PPE - mask, eye protection, face shield, gown -Patient care/equipment - CLEAN/DIRTY tech techniques -Linen -Patient placement
What are the ways infection can be transmitted? HINT: there are 5 AIRBORNE DROPLET CONTACT VECTOR VEHICLE
Describe AIRBORNE precautions Evaporated droplets in air for long time - small droplets, evaporated in air; DROPLET NUCLEI - negative pressure room, require respiratory mask N95; limited pt transport; EX : TB (N95 mask=respirator mask) - and Measles (surgical =isolation mask)
Describe DROPLET precautions Travels 3-5 feet (infectious secretions); larger droplets, pts 3' apart with same disease; pts must wear respiratory mask limited pt transport; EX: influenza, pneumonia, rubella, mumps, ebola
Describe CONTACT precautions direct - touching, kiss AND indirect - contaminated object; GLOVES/handwashing required; GOWNs required; CLEAN tech/DIRTY tech; EX: Hep A, Cellulitis, condition of NEUTROPENIA -low neutrophils (REVERSE ISOLATION)
Describe VECTOR precautions Insect or animal carrier (can travel by itself); EX: lyme, malaria
Describe VEHICLE precautions Food, water, drug, blood, equipment (needs something else to transport it); EX: Giardia, E. Coli
Describe EQUIPMENT DISINFECTION Disposable versus reusable items disinfection/sterilization sterilants and disinfectants
What are the levels of decontamination? cleaning-removal foreign material disinfection-reduction of microorganisms; sterilization - elimination of ALL microorganisms and spores
Created by: Larobbins