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Index A

Tech Manual 14th edition

A inventory system where “A” (most importnant) is 20 percent of items representing 65 percent of the inventory’s total value
B inventory “B” (2nd most important) is 30 percent of items representing 25 percent of the inventory’s total value
C inventory “C”(least importnant) is 50 percent of items representing 10 percent of the inventory’s total value
Absorption process that brings the drug from the site of administration into the body
Accredited officially recognized or authorized; U.S. pharmacy institutions are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy
Acetylcholine neurotransmitter that starts in discrete areas of the brain and spreads across wide areas of the brain; associated with learning, memory and arousal
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease of the human immune system that is characterized by a reduction in the numbers of CD4-bearing helper T cells to 20 percent or less of normal, thereby rendering the subject highly vulnerable to life-threatening condition
Acromegaly when growth hormone excess occurs in adulthood
Activated charcoal black powder derived from charred wood used in a suspension to treat those who have ingested poison
Active listening a communication technique, like the SOLER method
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) heart attack; occurs when a plaque ruptures and causes a blood clot (thrombus) to form in the coronary artery
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) when a patient experiences a complete obstruction of the coronary artery
Acute organ rejection cellular organ rejection (T-cell mediated) that occurs when the host immune system has a reaction to the markers on the donor organ
Acute pain pain with a sudden onset; usually nociceptive in nature and generally has a clear cause; generally resolves quickly once the damage has healed or has been treated
Acute renal failure (ARF) abrupt decline of kidney function; an abrupt increase in serum creatinine by more than 50 percent over a 24- to 48-hour period
Adaptive immunity involves an immune response to the foreign invader, usually consists of sending certain types of cells to destroy the threat, has the ability to “remember” pathogens it has encountered previously and tailor its response to be more efficient
Addiction a chronic, relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite negative consequences and by long-lasting changes in the brain
Addison’s disease occurs when there is abnormally low function of the adrenal gland; the actual tissue of the adrenal cortex is usually damaged, which leads to deficiencies in all of the hormones produced by the adrenal corte
Additive effect occurs when two or more drugs interact to produce a combined effect that is the sum of the individual drugs alone
Adenomas tumors
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) base energy molecule used by most cells in the body
Adequate Intake (AI) goal for each person for those nutrients that do not have a Recommended Dietary Allowance
Adjuvant therapy chemotherapy administered after surgery to ensure that any potentially remaining cancer cells do not survive
Admixture parenteral dosage form made from combining several drug products for administration as a single entity
Adrenal cortex outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes hormones essential to the body
Adrenal glands small glands that produce steroid hormones, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which help control heart rate, blood pressure and other important body functions and are located on top of each kidney
Adrenal insufficiency a disorder when the adrenal cortex makes too little steroid hormones
Adrenal medulla endocrine organ that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine for the activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Adrenocorticotropic hormone a major hormones produced in the anterior pituitary
Adulterated contaminated or not manufactured appropriately
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) unintended effect that occurs when a drug is given
Adverse event unintended effect that occurs when a drug is given
Aerosols sprayable products employing propellants (liquefied gasses) and valve systems to deliver medication; used for topical application to the skin, inhalation into the lungs and local application in the nose and mouth
Affective disorder mental disorder characterized by a consistent, pervasive alteration in one’s thoughts, emotions and behaviors
Agonist drug or other chemical that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiologic reaction typical of a naturally occurring substance
Albumin blood protein that maintains blood volume
Aldosterone mineralocorticoid that is part of the body’s system for retaining or releasing water and electrolytes
Alkylating agents work by stopping DNA and protein synthesis within the cancer cell nucleus, preventing the cancer cell from dividing
Allergen substance that induces allergy
Allergic rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose triggered by exposure to airborne allergens, such as dust, pollen or mold
Alopecia hair loss anywhere on the body, including the head, face, arms, legs, underarms or pubic region
Alveoli air sacs in the lungs
Ambulatory pharmacy service health care provided by pharmacy professionals to the walk-in (ambulatory) patien
Amenorrhea abnormal discontinuation of menstruation
Ampule (Amp) sterile glass or plastic container holding a single dose of parenteral solution
Amygdala screens for danger or threats to survival, and sends alerts to the forebrain for direction
Amylase enzyme in saliva that helps to break down carbohydrates in food
Anaphylactic reactions allergic hypersensitivity reaction of the body to a foreign protein or drug
Anaphylaxis severe allergic reaction that may lead to shock and can be fatal if left untreated
Anemia reduced production of red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body
Angina chest pain
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors medications used to treat hypertension
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) medications used to treat hypertension
Anniversary filling regular delivery medication schedule established using the day that the order is first written as the “anniversary” of when the delivery will be made
Anovulation absence of ovulation
Antacids available as oral suspensions, swallowable tablets, chewable tablets and soft chews that resemble gum; used to relieve symptoms of refluxing acid into the esophagus, acid indigestion, heartburn and upset stomach
Antagonize interfere with
Ante area an ISO Class 8 or better area where high-particulate generating activities are appropriate
Anterior Cingulate Gyros (ACG) integrates signals and language from outside the central nervous system; concisely sends these messages to the cortex and then sends a return message from the cortex to the appropriate part of the body that needs to respond
Anterior lobe secretes such hormones as growth hormone (GH or somatotropin), ACTH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Anticholinergic medications work by preventing the constriction of the smooth muscle surrounding the airway, which allows the airways to dilate, leading to air flowing more freely in and out of the lungs
Anticoagulant medications medications that stop or slow the clotting process
Antidote a substance used to neutralize, or counteract, the damage caused by a specific toxin or favorably alter the toxic effects of the poison
Antiemetics drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
Antigen active ingredient in a vaccine; any foreign substance that can stimulate the body’s immune response
Anti-inflammatory agents (corticosteroids) property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation; make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation
Antimetabolites work by affecting proteins or enzymes that are necessary for growth and survival within cells, or work by disrupting DNA and/or RNA synthesis within the cell nucleus
Antimicrotubules agents that work by stopping microtubules from assembling properly
Antiplatelet medications medications that interfere with platelet aggregation, the initial step in blood clot formation
Antipyretics preventing, removing or allaying fever
Anxiety emotional state experienced when faced with a stressful event or a situation in which there is real or perceived danger
Aorta body’s largest artery
Aortic valve valve in the heart between the left ventricle and the aorta
Arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Arthritis group of diseases collectively referred to as inflammatory joint diseases
Ascites accumulation of serous fluid within the abdominal cavity, resulting from portal hypertension
Aseptic processing mode of processing pharmaceutical and medical products in at least an ISO Class 5 environment that involves manipulating a sterile product without contaminating it
Assisted reproductive technology involves the direct retrieval of eggs from a woman’s ovaries and the manipulation of sperm and/or embryos to achieve pregnancy
Asthma chronic, long-term disease that affects the lungs, characterized by variable airflow obstruction that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment
Astrocytes (astroglia) have numerous projections that anchor these cells to the blood system; regulate the external chemical environment of the neurons by removing excess ions and recycling neurotransmitters, primary cells that metabolize ammonia in the brain
Ataxia lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movements, such as walking or picking up objects; a sign of an underlying condition, ataxia can affect your movements, your speech, your eye movements and your ability to swallow
Atherosclerosis slow buildup of a plaque in the coronary arteries
Atherosclerotic buildup of a waxy plaque on the inside of blood vessels
Atopic dermatitis severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
Atria top chambers of the heart that receive blood from other parts of the body
Atrophy breakdown of the pituitary gland
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) classified as a neurobehavioral developmental disorder; characterized by the coexistence of attention problems, hyperactivity and symptoms starting before seven years of age
Audience the intended recipient of a communication
Audit examination or evaluation of a pharmacy’s operation to determine compliance
Automated dispensing cabinet (ADC)/night cart specially designed devices that allow for the secure storage and the safe dispensing of medications in a patient care area
Autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary components of the nervous system, such as those innervated by smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands
Auxiliary labels labels affixed to medication containers that provide additional information, reminders or warnings to the patient about medication use and are used to supplement direct patient counseling and the prescription label
Average wholesale price (AWP) intended to represent the average price that a pharmaceutical company charges wholesalers wishing to purchase the product
Axon single fibers that usually carry impulses from the main body of a neuron either to other neurons or to a muscle or a gland in order for that area to respond to the sensory stimulus that first came down a dendrite to the neuron’s main body
Created by: Danijack2007



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