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RAD271-Patient Care

Legal/Ethical

QuestionAnswer
Define TORT Violation of CIVIL law; known as personal injury law - states that injured parties have a right to compensation for injury; violating another person's private legal rights (injury to one person not society); can be intentional or unintentional
Define INTENTIONAL MISCONDUCT Includes ASSAULT BATTERY FALSE IMPRISONMENT INVASION OF PRIVACY LIBEL SLANDER
Define ASSAULT action or words that causes fear or apprehension in patient; patient is apprehensive about being injured, imprudent conduct of tech causing fear in patient
Define BATTERY inappropriate touching or harm done to patient; harm resulting from physical contact with tech; can include x-ray of incorrect body part/wrong patient or against patient's will
Define FALSE IMPRISONMENT Unjustified restraint; restraint when patient changes mind about procedure. Caution must be used when using immobilization devices, or having another person hold a patient still
Define INVASION OF PRIVACY violating confidentiality; unnecessary or improperly exposing the patient's body; unnecessary or improper touching of patient's body
Define LIBEL Written defamation of character; disclosing confidential information to unauthorized individuals may be found guilty of invasion of privacy. If the disclosure is in some way detrimental or otherwise harmful to the patient, its defamation.
Define SLANDER spoken defamation of character; disclosing confidential information to unauthorized individuals may be found guilty of invasion of privacy. If the disclosure is in some way detrimental or otherwise harmful to the patient, its defamation.
Define DATA MANIPULATION manipulation of electronic data that is ethically wrong and morally questionable including: A) using incorrect processing algorithm B) Altering exposure indicator C) Cropping/Masking anatomy post-exposure
Define UNINTENTIONAL MISCONDUCT NEGLIGENCE; neglect or omission reasonable care; based on expectation of how a person w/similar education/experience would perform same circumstances; GROSS NEGLIGENCE (reckless disregard); CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE (injured party contributes to injury)
Define RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR "Let the Master Answer"; legal doctrine stating an employer is held liable for employee's negligent act
Define RES IPSA LOQUITUR "The Thing Speaks for Itself"; cause of negligence is obvious; doctrine in common law of torts that infers negligence from nature of accident/injury in absence of direct evidence on how any defendant behaved
Define Rule of Personal Responsibility individuals are responsible for their own actions
Radiographic images - common guidelines a) legal document b) must include - pt ID, anatomic marker (preferably lead) c) date of exposure d) annotation included post processing may not be legally admissible e) normally kept 5-7 years (mammo/black lung kept lifetime of pt); minors 5-7 post 18
Define NONMALIFICENCE radiographer's responsibility of prevention of harm to patient; Moral principle that describes radiographer's aspiration to do no harm or to allow no act that might cause harm to patient
Define BENIFICENCE decisions and actions made to benefit the patient
Describe the AHA Patient's Bill of Rights 1 considerate/respectful care; 2 be informed; 3 refuse treatment 4 advance directive; 5 privacy; 6 confidentiality; 7 review records; 8 request care; 9 conflict of interest; 10 research studies; 11 continuity of care; 12 know hospital policies/procedure
Describe IMPLIED CONSENT provides for unconscious patient; based on assumption patient would approve care if conscious
Describe VALID CONSENT also called INFORMED consent; Legal age Sound mind Give consent freely adequately informed IE mentally competent; voluntary consent; patient must be informed; legal age; procedure fully explained, including risks; explanation clear in layman's terms
Describe SIMPLE CONSENT obtaining patient's permission without knowledge of procedure - 2 types IMPLIED EXPRESSED
Define EXPRESSED CONSENT A form of SIMPLE consent; also known as EXPLICIT consent; clearly stated but not written; ex. patient changes mind but doesn't stop study
Describe INFORMED CONSENT always in writing after patient has been educated thoroughly of procedure and risks/consequences of procedure; many informed consent forms require a witness signature ex - required for invasive radiographic procedures (ie arthrograms, myelograms)
Describe IGNORANT CONSENT inadequate consent; particularly when injury occurs; occurs when patient was not properly and thoroughly informed of procedure and inherent risks and alternative procedures including risks if patient doesn't complete study
Define STANDARD OF CARE level of expertise generally possessed by a reputable member of the profession
Describe DUTY what SHOULD have been done
What is the ARRT Standard of Ethics? a document containing a preamble, statement of purpose, Code of Ethics (aspirational), Rules of Ethics (enforceable) and administrative procedures This document provides guidelines for the ethical and right thing to do in ambiguous situations.
What is the HONOR CODE? another name for ARRT Rules of Ethics; implies an effective regard for the standards of one's profession, a refusal to lie or deceive, an uprightness of character or action, trustworthiness and incorruptibility (HONESTY, INTEGRITY, PROBITY)
List the four elements of a negligent tort. Duty (what should have been done) Breach (deviation from duty) Injury sustained Cause (as a result of breach, failure to use reasonably prudent care)
List the conditions necessary for VALID CONSENT. patient must be 1. of sound mind, 2. legal age, 3. adequately informed, 4. consent given freely
What is an Advance Health Care Directive? Patient provides directives regarding med care prior to becoming incapacitated; names individual authorized to make all health care decisions, can include specifics - DNR (do not resuscitate), DNI (do not intubate), and other end-of-life decisions
What are the areas of litigation that most frequently involve radiology? Falls and positioning injuries, pregnancy and errors/delays in diagnosis
Describe HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Passed by Congress and enacted under USD Health and Human Services; protects patient health information, gives control of who can see it to patient
What is DNR? Do Not Resuscitate Also called NO CODE; used when patient condition is terminal or quality of life seriously declined; agreement between physician and patient (proxy)
What is durable power of attorney? document that provides for patient to name another person to make decisions regarding health care if patient is unable to communicate; allows person named to sign documents
Describe the ARRT Mission Statement. the mission of the ARRT is to promote high standards of patient care by recognizing qualified individuals in medical imaging, interventional procedures and rad therapy
What conditions must be met to establish MALPRACTICE? 1. Establish standard of care; 2. demonstration of violation of standard of care by tech; 3. demonstration loss or injury caused by tech; 4. demonstration loss or injury actually occurred and is a result of negligence
What is CHARTING? entering clear statements regarding patients condition, reaction to contrast agents and amount of contrast injected
Describe SCHEDULING of Radiographic Examinations. *appropriate and timely sequence and do not interfere with other exams *Barium studies last *thyroid assessment MUST PRECEDE any exams using iodinated contrast *contrast studies after non-contrast studies
Describe SEQUENCE of examinations. (order of scheduling) 1. endo studies 2. urinary tract 3. biliary system 4. CT prior to barium study 5. lower GI 6. upper GI
Describe patient history. info for tech to assist rad during interpretation of images; 1. how 2. when 3. where 4. tingling/numbness 5. weakness 6. unconscious 7. why order exam 8. SOB/cough 9. fever/heart probs 10. nausea, vomiting or diarrhea 11. previous 12. fam hx
Created by: Larobbins