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What are the McDonald criteria for MS diagnosis? Which are indicative of CIS? 2 attacks/2 lesions 2 attacks/1 lesion: (need evidence of dissemination in space) 1 attack/2 lesions: (need evidence of dissemination in time) 1 attack/1 lesion: (need evidence of both dissemination in time and space) Progressive course over 1yr
How is dissemination in space determined? MRI brain MRI spinal cord CSF Oligoclonal bands
What is the difference between T1 and T2 weighted MRI? T1 detects active inflammation T2 detects old and new lesions
What type of evoked potential test is the only type proven useful in the diagnosis of MS? Visual Evoked Potentials
What are some markers in CSF that are consistent with immune-related conditions? elevated IgG antibodies Presence of oligoclonal bands certain proteins common with the breakdown of myelin
What are some visual changes that may occur with MS? Optic neuritis, nystagmus, oscillopsia, intranuclear opthalmoplegia, optic disc pallor
What do you call an increase in body temperature causing an increase in neurologic symptoms? Uhthoff's phenomenon
What are some broad signs and symptoms of MS? motor weakness, spasticity, vision impairment, heat intolerance, fatigue, cerebellar dysfunction, urinary and bowel issues, cognitive impairment
At which stages of the Expanded Disability Status Scale is a person with MS still ambulatory? 0-4.5
Which stages of the EDSS is characterized by impairments in ambulation? 5-9.5
What is stage 10 of EDSS? death
Name the phenotypes of MS Primary progressive Secondary progressive Relapsing remitting Clinically isolated syndrome
What is the most common type of MS? Relapsing-remitting
Name some negative prognostic factors with MS PPMS older age at onset African American early cerebellar or pyramidal signs smoking low vitamin D levels
What is the main goal of medication management of MS? delay progression of disability
What temp should the pool be to be appropriate for a person with MS? 80-85deg
What tests can be conducted to assess a person's ability to dual task? TUG>14s TUG manual (holding a cup of water) >14.5 TUG cognitive (counting backwards by 3s) >15s >4.5s difference between TUG manual and TUG is indicative of impairment
What is the cutoff score for DHI in MS indicating increased fall risk? >59 (out of 0-100)
Is the BBB intact or impaired in those with MS? impaired
What is the reduction in life expectancy in a person with MS? 7-14yrs
What comorbidities are more common in those with MS? sepsis cancer ischemic stroke ulcerative colitis attempted suicide
What are the most prevalent comorbidities in those with MS? depression anxiety HTN HLD chronic lung disease
What are the most prevalent autoimmune diseases with MS? psoriasis thyroid disease
What are the most prevalent cancers with MS? breast cervical digestive system
What type of MS: 1st episode of demyelination in the CNS that could become MS if additional activity occurs? clinically isolated syndrome
The most common type of MS with discrete attacks followed by remission. relapsing remitting
Progressive accumulation of disability after an initially relapsing course. Secondary progressive
Nearly continuous worsening of disease onset without distinct attacks. Primary progressive
How long must symptoms last for it to count as a relapse or exacerbation? >24 hours new, recurrent, or worsening symptoms and cannot be attributed to another etiology
If symptoms last <24 hours or experiencing Uhthoff's phenomenon what is it called? pseudoexacerbation
Created by: metz