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Ch 5 Critical Cognit


FORMAL FALLACY form of the argument itself is invalid. “Some apples are red. No apples are blue. Therefore, all apples are red.”
INFORMAL FALLACY mistaken reasoning that occurs when an argument is psychologically or emotionally persuasive but logically incorrect.
FALLACY OF AMBIGUITY 4 TYPES: Equivocation, Amphiboly, Accent, Division
FALLACY OF EQUIVOCATION occurs when a key term in an argument is ambiguous—when TERM has more than one meaning. "right", relative terms (adjectives)
FALLACY OF AMPHIBOLY when an argument contains a grammatical mistake. Ex: Clinique ad of “Wear it and be happy!” (cause and effect?)
FALLACY OF ACCENT when an argument’s meaning changes depending on which words or phrases are emphasized.
FALLACY OF DIVISION when we make erroneous inferences from group characteristics about those of individuals within the group. Just because most men are tall doesn't mean all men are tall.
FALLACY OF COMPOSITION when a characteristic of a member of a group is erroneously assumed to be characteristic of the whole group. “The rooms in the hotel are small. Therefore, the hotel must be small.”
FALLACY OF RELEVANCE one or more of the premises is logically irrelevant, or unrelated, to the conclusion.
FALLACY OF RELEVANCE personal attacks or ad hominem fallacies; appeals to force or scare tactics; appeals to pity; popular appeals; appeals to ignorance; hasty generalizations; straw man fallacies; and red herrings.
AD HOMINEM FALLACY AGAINST MAN. we disagree with another’s conclusion and attack them personally instead of presenting a valid counterargument. ABUSIVE, circumstantial
circumstantial ad hominem fallacy accuse one of being a hypocrite, so argument is invalid
APPEAL TO FORCE FALLACY when we use or threaten to use force in an attempt to get others to back down or accept our conclusions. SCARE tactics, intimidation
APPEAL TO PITY FALLACY we try to evoke feelings of pity in others when pity is irrelevant to the conclusion.
fallacy of popular appeal we appeal to popular opinion to gain support for our conclusion. BANDWAGON. includes SNOB APPROACH (celebrities in ads)
APPEAL TO IGNORANCE FALLACY when we try to argue that something is true because no one has proven it to be false. UFOs obviously don’t exist. No one has been able to prove that they do.
hasty generalization fallacy when we generalize from a sample that is too small or biased.
straw man fallacy when a person distorts or misrepresents the opponent’s argument, making it easier to knock down or refute. like in same-sex marriage controversy
red herring fallacy when a person tries to sidetrack an argument by going off on a tangent and bringing up a different issue directed toward a different conclusion.
fallacy of unwarranted assumption when an argument includes an assumption that is not supported by evidence.
begging the question fallacy when an argument’s conclusion is simply the rewording of its premise. CIRCULAR REASONING
inappropriate appeal to authority fallacy when we look to an authority in a field that is unrelated or not under investigation
loaded question fallacy when a question asked assumes a particular answer to another unasked question.
false dilemma fallacy reduces responses to complex issues to an either/or choice.
questionable cause or post hoc fallacy when a person assumes, without sufficient evidence, that one thing is the cause of another
slippery slope fallacy if we permit a certain action, then all actions of this type, even extreme ones, will soon be permissible.
naturalistic fallacy based on the unwarranted assumption that what is natural is good or morally acceptable and that what is unnatural is bad or morally unacceptable.
Created by: ccyndimolina