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diseases exam final

CP diseases

The major pathologic or structural changes associated with emphysema are: Permanent enlargement and destruction of respiratory bronchioles,Destruction of pulmonary capillaries,Hyperinflation of alveolii
Panlobular emphysema is the abnormal dilation of the airways: Distal to the terminal bronchioles
Important etiologic factors of emphysema are: Cigarette smoking,Gastroesophageal reflex disease,Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Polycythemia and corpulmonale associated with severe emphysema may lead to the following: Distended neck veins,Pitting edema,Enlarged and tender liver
Emphysema accompanied by chronic bronchitis may lead to: Polycythemia
Chest radiographic findings on a patient with emphysema may include: Depressed or flattened diaphragms,Enlarged heart,Increased retrosternal air spaces
Functional Residual capacity (FRC) is higher in a patient with severe emphysema because: Increased RV due to air-traping
Sputum examination of an emphysematic patient (when accompanied by chronic bronchitis) most commonly: Streptococus pneumoniae,Haemophilus Influenza
The combination of air trapping, lung hyperinflation, and alveolar hypoventilation associated with emphysema leads to an increased v/q ratio. t or f? False
Which is the most appropriate lung volume for a patient with emphysema? Increased tidal volume
Percussion notes on a patient with emphysema are hyperresonant.
Which of the following pulmonary function study findings are associated with severe emphysema? Increased FRC, Increased RV, Decreased FVC
Which of the folllowing is true regarding a patient in severe emphysema? Fully compensated respiratory acidosis with hypoxemia
The lung parenchyma in the chest radiograph of a patient with emphysema appear More translucent than normal,Dark
Major anatomic alterations of the lungs associated with emphysema: Distal airway and alveolar weakening,Alveolar hyperinflation (air-trapping),Permanent enlargement and deterioration of alveoli
Chest assessment findings of a patient with chronic bronchitis: Hyperresonant percussion note, Diminished breath sound, Rhonchi or crackles
Which of the following is most commonly seen on sputum examination in a patient with chronic bronchitis? Streptococus pneumoniae
In the treatment of patients presenting to the hospital with moderate or severe acute exacerbation of COPD, the following therapeutic options are benefitial: Systemic corticosteroids up to 2 weeks, if not on long term steroid therapy, Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation,Oxygen, with caution, in hypoxemic patients
In chronic bronchitis,The bronchial glands are enlarged
Which of the following is/are believed to play a major etiologic role in chronic bronchitis? Ozone,Sulpher dioxide,Nitrogen oxide.
Spirometry results on a patient with chronic bronchitis shows which of the following? ERV? decreased
Patients with severe chronic bronchitis may demonstrate which of the following? Distended neck vein,An elevated hemoglobin concentration, An enlarged liver
In the treatment of patients presenting to the hospital with moderate or severe acute exacerbration of COPD, the following therapeutic options are beneficial: Systemic corticosteroids (up to 2 weeks) if the patient is not receiving long term oral steroid
Chronic bronchitis is charecterised by: Bronchial smooth muscle constriction,Anatomic changes in smaller airways, Alveolar hyperinflation
Which of the following is/are true regarding intrinsic asthma? Asthmatic episode cannot be linked to a specific antigen, Normal serum IgE level when exposed to antigen,Also called nonatopic asthma
The immunologic response in asthma releases the following chemical mediators: Histamine,Leukotrines,ECF-A
With regard to the Asthma Zone Management System, the “Yellow Zone” is defined as: 50-80% of personal best PEFR
Step 4, in the Stepwise Approach for the Management of Asthma in Adults and Children (National Institutes of Health), is described as: Severe persistent
When pulsus paradoxus appears during an asthmatic attack: Systolic blood pressure is more than 10 mm Hg lower on inspiration than expiration
Which of the following doesn't affect Oxygen transport (D02): Tidal volume
Asthma is associated with Atelectasis (severe cases)
What condition which is not applicable with asthma Chronic dilation of bronchial airway
When chemical mediators from mast cells are released: Bronchial gland hypersecretion occurs,Tissue edema occurs
During an asthmatic episode, which of the following spirometry values are true? Decreased PEFR,Decreased FVC
During mast cell degranulation, which of the following chemical mediators are released? ECF-A,Histamine,Leukotrines
Patients commonly exhibit which of the following arterial blood gas values during an acute asthmatic episode. Increased pH,Decreased Bicarbonate,Decreased PaO2
Recommended treatment regimen for asthmatic when peak flow meter shows 55% of the personal best is: Temporary increase in medication
First line preventer (controller) agent for asthma is Cromolyn sodium
Major pathologic or structural changes associated with bronchiectasis: Excessive production of often foul-smelling sputum,Hyperinflation of the distal alveolii,telectasis, consolidation and fibrosis
Major forms of bronchiectasis are: Vericose,Saccular,Cylindrical
Which of the following is true regarding vericose(fusiform) bronchiectasis: Bronchi are dilated and constricted in irregular fashion.
Which type of bronchiectasis causes the greatest damage to the tracheobronchial tree? Sacular bronchiectasis
The etiology of bronchiectasis is not always clear.
Which of the following are the causes of acquired bronchiectasis? Repeated and prologed respiratory tract infections,Bronchial obstruction caused by foreign bodies,Respiratory complications of chickemnpox
Commonly cultured organisms from the sputum of patients with bronchiectasis are: Haemophilus Influenzae,Streptococus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Arterial blood gas in a severe bronchiectasis is most likely: Chronic ventilatory failure with hypoxemia
Bronchiectasis is primarily: Restrictive or obstructive disease
Which of the following are common causes of acquired bronchiectasis? . Pulmonary tuberculosis
In the primary obstructive form of bronchiectasis, the patient commonly demonstrates which of the following? Decreased PEFR
Which of the following are classified as Mucolytic agents to enhance the mobilization of secretions? Acetylcysteine,rhDNase
When the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis is primarily obstructive in nature the patient demonstrates which of the following clinical manifestations? Decreased tactile and voclal fremitus,Crackles/rhonchi/wheezing
Which of the following diagnostic procedures is/are used to diagnose bronchiectasis? Bronchography,Computed tomography
Which of the following is/are congenital causes of bronchiectasis? Cystic Fibrosis
Haemophilus influenzae Gram-negative organism
Streptococcus Gram-positive organism
Enterobacter species Gram-negative organism
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Viral cause
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative organism
Mycoplasma pneumonia Atypical organism
Staphylococcus Gram-positive organism
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Viral cause
Most bacterial pneumonias are caused by Streptococcus bacteria. t or f? t
Increased respiratory rate, increased heart rate , and decreased chest expansion are usually noticed on patients with pneumonia during physical assessment. t or f? t
The coronavirus is associated with SARS. t or f? t
Patients with pneumonia usually produce soft, diminished breath sounds over the affected area. t or f? f
In pneumonia, percussion notes are usually dull over the affected area. t or f? t
Which of the following is/are commonly seen in patients with AIDS? Aspergillus,Cryptococus, Pneumocysis carinii,Cytomegalovirus
The first drug of choice in treating a lung abscess is: Penicillin
The chest assessment findings commonly show which of the following directly over the abscess? Crackles and rhonchi,Dull percussion note,Bronchial breath sounds,Diminished breath sounds
Predisposing factors that frequently lead to the aspiration of gastrointestinal fluids (and anaerobes) are usually related to which of the following? General anesthesia,Head trauma,Cerebrovascular accident,Seizure disorder,Alcoholic abuse
Which of the following anatomic alterations of the lungs is/are associated with lung abscess? Alveolar consolidation,Bronchopleural fistulae,Atelectasis,Excessive airway secretions
Anatomically, a lung abscess most commonly forms in which part(s) of the lung: Posterior segment of the upper lung,Superior segment of the lower lobe.
Which of the following pulmonary function findings may be associated with severe and extensive lung abcess? Decreased FVC,Decreased RV
Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms enters humans in the following ways Respiratory tract,Gastrointestinal tract,Open wound in the skin
A positive tuberculin test begins with a wheal of what size? 10 mm or greater
TB infection that escapes from a tubercle and rapidly disseminate to sites other than the lungs by means of: Blood stream
The most common oxygen rich areas where the disseminated TB bacilli resides are: Regional lymph nodes,Kidneys,Ends of long bones
What is the name of the protective cell wall that surrounds and encases lung tissue infected with tuberculosis? Granuloma,Tubercle
Drug resistant TB is probable if the person infected with TB Is foreign born,Had previous antituberculous drug therapy,Been exposed to another patient with drug resistant TB
Positive reaction confirms that a patient has active TB
Coccidioidomycosis is also known as: Desert fever,San Joaquin Valley disease,Valley fever
Which of the following is considered the drug of choice for severe fungal diseases of the lungs? Amphotercin B
Fungal diseases most commonly involve the apical and posterior segments of the upper lung lobes. t or f? t
Fungal diseases and tuberculosis cause similar anatomic changes of the lungs. t or f? t
When fungal spores are inhaled, which of the following pathologic or structural changes of the lungs may happen? Alveolar consolidation,Fibrosis and secondary calcification of the lungs,Caseous tubercles or granulomas
Signs and symptoms of chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis is charecterized by infiltration and cavity formation in the upper lobes of one or both lungs. What are the signs and symptoms of the disease at this stage? Fever,Weight loss,Hemoptysis
The diagnosis of blastomycosis can be made by: Fungal stain test,Culture of the fungus
The condition called desert bumps, desert arthritis, or desert rheumatism is associated with which of the following disorder? Coccidomycosis
Opportunistic infection is: An infection caused primarily by a non-pathogenic organism in an immunocompromised individual.
Which of the following statements are TRUE regarding restrictive lung disorders and obstructive lung diseases. Lung volumes are lower in restrictive lung disorders,Expiratory flow rates are lower in obstructive lung disorders
During acute pulmonary edema: Alveolar surface tension increases
Colloid osmotic pressure is also called colloid oncotic pressure
Which one on the pulmonary function values during pulmonary edema is correct?VT is normal or decreased
in pulmonary edema, an increased hydrostatic pressure is caused by: Excessive sodium consumption
The normal colloid osmotic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries: 25-30 mm Hg
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is: Inability to breath in a supine position
Which of the following is/are considered noncardiogenic cause(s) of increased capillary permeability? Head injury,Pneumonia,Sulfur dioxide,Alveolar hypoxia
What is the normal hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries? 10-15 mm Hg
In pulmonary edema, fluid first moves into the: Perivascular interstitial space,Peribronchial interstitial space
Which of the following are causes of cardiogenic pulmonary edema? Excessive fluid administration,
When a patient with pulmonary edema lies down, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure rises. This action will: Promotes pulmonary shunting,Raises venus admixture,Causes hypoxemia
Mask CPAP has been shown to produce significant and rapid improvement in oxygentation and ventilatory status in patients with pulmonary edema due to: Decreases vascular congestion,Enhances gas exchange.
Acute pulmonary edema is treated by: Oxygen,Morphin sulphate,Lasix
A large embolus that lodges in the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery is called a Saddle embolus
When an embolus lodges in the pulmonary vascular system, the ventilation beyond the obstruction results: Wasted ventilation
As a result of the decreased systemic blood pressure associated with a pulmonary embolism, reflexes from the aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors cause: Increased heart rate and ventilatory rate
The last resort in treating pulmonary embolism because of the mortality rate associated with it is: Pulmonary embolectomy
The loss of consciousness resulting from insufficient blood flow to the brain is called: Syncope
If ABG shows acute ventilatory failure for a patient with severe pulmonary emboli, the most appropriate treatment is: Continuous mechanical ventilation
Which of the following is/are major mechanisms that contribute to the pulmonary hypertension commonly seen in the patients with pulmonary embolism? Decreased cross-section area of the pulmonary vascular system because of the emboli, Vasoconstriction induced by alveolar hypoxia, Vasconstriction induced by humoral agents
Which of the following thrombolytic agents is/are used to treat pulmonary embolism? Urokinase,Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA,Streptokinase
If the pulmonary embolism significantly disrupts blood flow pulmonary infarction develops and causes: Alveolar atelectasis,Consolidation,Bronchial smooth muscle constriction
A first-choice test for patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism is Fast Computed Tomography Scan
Chest radiograph findings of patients with pulmonary embolism: Dilation of the pulmonary arteries,Pulmonary edema,Right ventricular cardiomegaly
When humoral agents such as serotonin are released into the pulmonary circulation, which of the following occur? The V/Q ratio decreases,The bronchial smooth muscle constrict
Most pulmonary emboli originates from Leg and pelvic vein
As a consequence of severe flail chest, which of the following occurs? VT decreases,FRC decreases
When a patient has a severe flail chest, which of the following occurs? Cardiac output decreases,VO2 remains unchanged
A flail chest is the result of double fractures of: Three or more adjacent ribs
When a paradoxical movement is seen in a patient with a flail chest, the fractured ribs: Sink in during inspiration
In mild cases of flail chest the required treatment is: Pain medication,Routine bronchial hygiene
In severe cases of flail chest the management of patient include: Stabilization of chest wall,Volume caontrol ventilation with PEEP
Which of the following pathophysiologic mechanisms may be activated as a result of a flail chest and increase the patient’s respiratory rate? V/Q ratio decreases,Stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors
When gas enters the pleural space during inspiration but is unable to leave during expiration, the patient is said to have a/an: Valvular pneumothorax,Tension pneumothorax
Which of the following may cause a pneumothorax? Pneumonia,Tuberculosis,Bulla
When a patient has a pneumothorax because of a suckling chest wound, which of the following occurrs? The mediastinum often moves to the unaffected side during inspiration, Intrapleural pressure on the affected side often rises above the atmospheric pressure during inspiration,The mediastinum often moves to the affected side during expiration
A patient with a severe tension pneumothorax demonstrates which of the following? Diminished breath sound,Hyperresonant percussion note
Which of the following is not a major pathologic change associated with pneumothorax: Increase venus return
In an open pneumothorax: Pleural space is in direct contact with atmosphere,Gas can move in and out of pleural space,Also called sucking chest wound
A pneumothorax in which the intrapleural pressure exceeds intraalveolar pressure is called: Tension pneumothorax
When treating a pneumothorax with a chest tube and suction, the negative pressure used is: -5 cm H2O
When the pneumothorax is 15-20% the patient may need: Bed rest or limited physical activity
Bed rest or limited physical activity Needle aspiration
Which of the following is the common causes of transudative pleural effusion? CHF
Trauma to the neck commonly causes which of the following? Chylothorax
Which of the following is/are major causes of an exudative pleural effusion? Tuberculosis,Pneumonia,Fungal diseases
A pleural effusion commonly demonstrates which of the following findings during a chest assessment? Dull percussion note,Tracheal shift
Which of the following is/are associated with transudative pleural effusion? Thin and watery fluid,Few blood cells
Fluid samples from a thoracentesis may be examined for which of the following? Protein and glucose,Cytology,RBC count,AFB stains
Chylothorax Presence of the milky liquid (produced in the small intestine during digestion) in the pleural cavity
Empyema Pus in the pleural cavity
Pleurodesis A chemical or medication is injected in to the chest cavity
Thoracentesis Puncture of the chest wall for the removal of fluid
Which of the following pulmonary function value(s) is/are true in kyphoscoliosis? Decreased VT,Decreased RV
The clinical manifestations associated with kyphoscoliosis are Mucus accumulation throughout tracheobronchial tree,Atelectasis,Mediastinal shift
Which of the following is/are associated with kyphoscoliosis? Dull percussion note, Bronchial breath sounds
Kyphosis is a lateral curve of the spine.t or f? false
Polycythemia and cor pulmonale are associated with kyphoscoliosis. t or f? True
The following statements are true regarding kyphoscoliosis Surgery is recommended if the curvature of the spine is greater than 50 degrees, Braces does not cure scoliosis
The etiologic determinants in the development of pneumoconiosis include the following except: Size of the inhaled particles is between 0.5 and 1.2 microns is likely to reach the alveoli
The DLCO is normal in pneumoconiosis.t or f? f
A lower-than-normal hemoglobin concentration is associated with severe pneumoconiosis. t or f? f
The clinical manifestations associated with pneumoconiosis are based on the clinical scenarios activated by which of the following? Increased alveolar-capillary membrane thickness, Bronchospasm
Chest radiographic findings of patient with pneumoconiosis include Small rounded opacities scattered throughout the lung,Honeycomb appearance
Which of the following expiratory maneuver findings is/are associated with the pneumoconioses? Decreased FEV 1.0,Decreased FVC
The fibrotic changes that develop in coal worker's pneumoconiosis usually result from which of the following? silica
growth rate of Small-cell carcinoma very fast
growth rate of Squamous cell carcinoma slow
growth rate of Adenocarcinoma moderate
Which of the following is associated with bronchogenic carcinoma? Alveolar consolidation,Pleural effusion,Atelectasis
Benign tumors: grow slowly.,are usually encapsulated.
Which of the following has the fastest growth (doubling) rate? Oat-cell carcinoma
Which of the following is/are non–small-cell lung cancer(s)? Undifferentiated carcinoma,Squamous carcinoma,Adenocarcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. t or f? t
Adenocarcinoma arises from the mucous glands of the tracheobronchial tree. t or f? t
Surgical resection is the principle form of treatment for patients with Stage I or Stage II lung cancer. t or f? t
Hypoxemia caused by capillary shunting often is refractory to oxygen therapy.t or f? t
Which of the following statements is true regarding ARDS? Bronchial breath sounds are associated with ARDS.
During early stages of ARDS, the patient commonly demonstrates which of the following arterial blood gas? decreased HcO3
ARDS has been called many different names in the medical literature. Primarily, the names have been based on the etiology believed to be responsible for the disease. t or f? t
The clinical manifestations associated with ARDS are based on the clinical scenarios activated by which of the following? Consolidation, Increased alveolar-capillary membrane thickness,Atelectasis
What is the generic name of Lasix? Furosemide
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) seen in patients with shock is a condition of paradoxical simultaneous clotting and bleeding that produces microthrombi in the lungs. t or f? t
Which of the following is not true regarding ARDS? Hyperresonant percussion note
Ventilation strategy for most patients with ARDS is: Tidal volume is 4 to 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight
The patient with interstitial lung disease may demonstrate: Obstructive disorder, restrictive disorder, or a combination of obstructive and restritive disorder
Which of the following is another name for extrinsic allergic alveolitis? Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Which of the following disorder is associated with desqumative interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia? Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Pulmonary manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus are: Pleurisy with or without effusion,Atelectasis,Diffuse interstitial lung disease,Diaphramatic dysfunction,Infection
Which of the following pulmonary function study findings is/are associated with chronic interstitial lung disease? Normal or decreased FEV1,Decreased FVC
A pleural effusion is commonly associated with which of the following chronic interstitial lung diseases? systemic lupus erythematosus,Rhematoid arthritis
The diagnosis of drug induced interstitial lung disease is confirmed by: Open lung biopsy
The organs primarily involved in Goodpasture's syndrome are: Lung,Kidney
Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP) has been associated with the following except: Anemia
The respiratory clinical manifestations associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome are based on the clinical scenarios activated by which of the following? Consolidation, Excessive bronchial secretions, Atelectasis
Common noncardiopulmonary manifestations associated with Guillain-Barré is/are: decreased ability to swallow.,decreased gag reflex.,tingling sensation and numbness,sensory nerve impairment.
Although the precise cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome is not known, it's probably: An immune disorder that causes inflammation and deterioration of peripheral nervous system.
Which of the following are possible precursors to Guillain-Barre syndrome? Mumps,Measles,Infectious mononucleosis
In Gullian Barre Sydrome, which of the following pathologic changes develop in the perepheral nerves? inflammation,Demyelination, Edema
The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre Syndrome is based on patient's: Clinical history,Significant signs include paralysis,CSF findings
Which one of the following has been shown effective in severe cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Plasmapheresis (plasma exchange)
Which of the following is/are common noncardiopulmonary manifestations associated with myasthenia gravis? Double vision,Weakness of arms and legs,Drooping of upper eyelids,Speech impairment
Which of the following is/are used to treat myasthenia gravis? Prostigmin (neostigmine,Thymectomy,Edrophonium chloride (tensilon)
Which of the following is/are associated with myasthenia gravis? Decreased FEV1, Decreased FVC
The cause of Myasthenia Gravis is due to the disruption of the chemical transmission of ACH at neuromuscular junction by; Blocking the ACH from the receptor sites of the muscular cell,Accelerating the breakdown of ACH
The diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis is based on: Clinical history,Neurological examination,Blood analysis,Edrophonium (Tensilon) test
If the patient has Myasthenia Gravis, administration of Tensilon would increase the muscle strength for about: 10 minutes
Weakness of the muscles of the lower portion of the face is associated with myasthenia gravis.t or f? t
Because ventilatory failure is possible patients with Myasthenia Gravis is frequently monitored with the following measurements: Vital Capacity,Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP),Arterial Blood Gasses (SpO2)
Rationale for thymectomy for young adult females with Myastenia Gravis is due to the belief that the thymus gland is the source of: Anti-ACH antibodies
Sleep apnea is diagnosed in patients who have: More than 5 episodes of apnea per hour over a 6-hour period
Non-REM sleep is also called active sleep. t or f? f
Negative-pressure ventilation is contraindicated in obstructive sleep apnea. t or f? True
During periods of sleep apnea, the patient commonly demonstrates an increased heart rate.t or f? True
The O2ER is decreased in sleep apnea. t or f? False
Which of the following cardiac arrhythmias is/are associated with severe sleep apnea? Atrioventricular block,Sinus bradycardia,Ventricular tachycardia,Premature ventricular contraction,Sinus arrhythmia
Which is another name for non-rapid eye movement? Slow wave sleep,Quiet sleep
Pickwickian syndrome is associated with which of the following? Obstructive sleep apnea,Obesity,Loud snoring
Some clinical disorders associated with obstructive sleep apnea are: Obesity,Enlarged tonsils or adenoids
Periods of severe sleep apnea are commonly associated with which of the following: Premature ventricular contraction,Ventricular tachycardia,Sinus bradycardia
Which of the following therapy modalities are therapeutic for central sleep apnea? Negative pressure ventilation
Which of the following is NOT monitored in Polysomnographic monitoring? Calorimeter to measure the calories used during sleep
Which of the following is true about near drowning? Victim survives a liquid submersion at least temporarily
Cardiopulmonary clinical manifestations associated with near drowning victim: ncreased respiratory rate,increased heart rate,crackles and ronchi , Fluffy infiltrates in chest X-ray
Radiogrphic deterioration in a near drowning patient may occur in the first: 48 to 72 hours
Which one of the folowing is not an indication for mechanical ventilation for a near drowning victim? Atelectasis
The indication for mechanical ventilation in a spontaneously breathing patient with smoke inhalation is: PaO2 of 60 mm Hg or greater with an FiO2 of 50% or lower
the hypothermia in a near drowning victim can be corrected by the following except:Continuous nebulized aerosol therapy
Except for the rare instances of steam inhalation, direct thermal injuries usually do not occur below the level of which of the following? Larynx
Thermal injuries to the distal airways results in: Mucosal edema,Vascular congestion,Obliterative bronchiolitis
Organisms commonly cultured in the intermediate stage of burns include: Staphylococus,Pseudomonas,Klebsiella
During the late stage (5 or more days post smoke inhalation) infections resulting from burn wounds may lead to the following: Sepsis,Multiorgan failure, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Embolism
The prognosis of the fire victims usually is determined by: The extent and duration of smoke exposure,Size and depth of body surface burn,Pre-existing health status
When chest burns are present, the patient's pulmonary condition may be further aggravated by which of the following? Decreased lung and chest compliance,Increased airway resistance,Immobility, Pain
Which of the following is/are the pulmonary related pathologic change(s) associated with smoke inhalation? pulmonary embolism,Pulmonary edema,Bronchospasm
Healing time for a seceond-degree burn is between: 7 and 21 days
Long term effects of smoke inhalation result in restrictive and obstructive lung disorders, a restrictive lung disorder develops from: Alveolar fibrosis
fluid resuscitation w/ ringer's lactate solution is usually initiated according to the parkland formula, which is 4 ml/kg of body weight for each percent of BSA burned over a 24 hour period.
Created by: blueseas
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