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MGT 502

QuestionAnswer
Motivation determines the direction, intensity, and persistence of effort. true
Self‑efficacy: the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success Past accomplishments Vicarious experiences Verbal persuasion Emotional cues
Value‑percept theory job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you value
Job characteristics theory Variety, Identity, Significant, Autonomy, Feedback
Identity (Job characteristic) Identity: the degree to which the job requires completing a whole, identifiable, piece of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome
Feedback (Job characteristic) Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job provides employees with clear information about how well they're performing
Stress Stress is defined as a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person's capacity or resources
Stressors Stressors: the demands that cause people to experience stress
Strains the negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed a person's capacity or resources
Stress depends on Stress depends on both the nature of the demand and the person who confronts it
Transactional theory of stress Hindrance stressors, Challenge stressors
Coping Coping refers to the behaviors and thoughts that people use to manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with those stressful demands
Problem.focused coping Problem.focused coping refers to behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself
Emotion.focused coping Emotion.focused coping refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
Motivation Motivation is defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work.related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
Expectancy theory Expectancy theory describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses Effort-(Expectancy)->Performance-(Instrumentality)-Outcome (Valence)
Expectancy Expectancy represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task
Self‑efficacy Self‑efficacy: the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success
Self‑efficacy (4ways) Past accomplishments Vicarious experiences Verbal persuasion Emotional cues
Instrumentality Instrumentality represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes
Valence Valence reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Psychological empowerment Psychological empowerment reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose Meaningfulness Self‑determination Competence Impact
Organizational behavior a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations
Job performance The value of the set of behaviors that contribute (either positively or negatively) to organizational goal accomplishment
Organizational commitment A desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of an organization
Task performance Employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces
Routine task performance involves well‑known responses to demands that occur in a normal, routine, or otherwise predictable way (flight attendant robotically demonstrate how to insert the seatbelt)
Adaptive task performance involves employee responses to task demands that are novel, unusual, or unpredictable (Handling emergencies or crisis situations, Handling work stress)
Creative task performance refers to the degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful
Citizenship behavior Voluntary activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the quality of the setting where the task work occurs (Helping, Courtesy, sportsmanship)
Organizational citizenship behavior voice, civic virtue, Boosterism
Boosterism representing the organization in a positive way when out in public, away from the office, and away from work
civic virtue participating in the company's operations at a deeper‑than‑normal level by attending voluntary meetings and functions, reading and keeping up with organizational announcement, and keeping abreast of business news that affects the company
Counterproductive behavior Employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment (Property deviance, Production deviance,Political deviance, Personal aggression)
Property deviance Sabotage: the purposeful destruction of physical equipment, organizational processes, or company products. Theft
production deviance Production deviance is also directed against the organization but focuses specifically on reducing the efficiency of work output. Wasting resources, Substance abuse: if employees abuse drugs or alcohol while on the job or shortly before coming to work
Political deviance refers to behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization, Gossiping, Incivility
Affective commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of emotional attachment
erosion model suggests that employees with fewer bonds will be most likely to quit the organization
social influence model The social influence model suggests that employees who have direct linkages with "leavers" will themselves become more likely to leave
Continuance commitment : an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to an awareness of the costs of leaving
Normative commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation
Exit ‑ Voice ‑ Loyalty ‑ Neglect Loyalty: a passive response where the employee remains supportive while hoping for improvement Neglect: interest and effort in the job is reduced
Apathetics Apathetics possess low levels of both organizational commitment and task performance and merely exert the minimum level of effort needed to keep their jobs
Withdrawal behavior employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations
Psychological withdrawal (neglect) Psychological withdrawal (neglect) daydreaming, socializing, looking busy, moonligghting, cyberloafing
Physical withdrawal (exit) Physical withdrawal (exit) tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings, absenteeism, quitting
Organization job performance evaluation system Management by Objectives (MBO), 360‑degree feedback, Social networking systems,Forced rankings Performance App (GE)
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) also called "critical incidents" Measures performance by directly assessing job performance behaviors
Performance App (GE) Performance App (GE): continue doing something; consider changing something
Disposition.based trust Trust propensity: a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon
Cognition.based trust Trustworthiness: the characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust
Affect.based trust feelings toward trustee
Informational justice the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities
Trust has a moderate positive effect on job performance true
Trust has a strong positive effect on organizational commitment true
Corporate social responsibility Economic responsibility Legal responsibility Ethical responsibility Discretionary responsibility
Explicit knowledge knowledge is easily communicated and available to everyone
Tacit knowledge what employees can typically learn only through experience
Learning orientation building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence
Performance.prove orientation: focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them
Performance.avoid orientation focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them
Intuition an emotional judgment based on quick, unconscious, gut feeling
Decision.making problems Limited information Faulty perceptions Faulty attributions Escalation of commitment
Learning has a moderate positive effect on job performance true
Learning has a weak positive effect on organizational commitment true
Behavior modeling training: employees have the ability to observe and learn from those in the company with significant amounts of tacit knowledge
Communities of practice groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time
Accomplishment striving a strong desire to accomplish task‑related goals as a means of expressing personality
Communion striving a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality
Neurotic people tend to hold an external locus of control that they often believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck, chance, or fate true
Status striving: a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality
Myers‑Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Extraversion versus Introversion Sensing versus Intuition Thinking versus Feeling Judging versus Perceiving
Project GLOBE Gender Egalitarianism Assertiveness Future Orientation Performance Orientation Humane Orientation
Inductive reasoning: the ability to consider several specific pieces of information to generate a hypothesis and a plausible solution
Spatial ability associated with visual and mental representation and manipulation of objects in space
Competing value frameworks Hierarchy Culture, Market Culture,Clan Culture, Adhocracy Culture
Work specialization the way in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs
Chain of command answers the question "Who reports to whom?" and signifies formal authority relationships
span of control A manager's span of control represents how many employees he or she is responsible for in the organization
Multi‑divisional structures Product structures, Geographic structures, Client structures
Restructuring small negative effect on task performance, more significant negative effect on organizational commitment
Observable artifacts are the manifestations of an organization's culture that employees can easily see or talk about Symbols, Physical structures, Language, Stories, Rituals (daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an organization) Ceremonies
Espoused values the beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states (company's vision or mission statement)
Basic underlying assumptions the taken‑for‑granted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation
Networked cultures employees are friendly to one another, but everyone thinks differently and does his or her own thing
Communal cultures Communal cultures: friendly employees who all think alike
Hierarchy Culture Stability/Control; Internal Focus/Integration) Values the role of senior executives to lead the organization, its goal is to keep everyone aligned and under control (General Motors; Bureaucratic)
Market Culture (Stability/Control; External Focus/Differentiation) Values individual and organizational performance and strives for effectiveness and efficiency in reaching goals (General Electric; Competitive)
Clan Culture (Flexibility/Discretion; Internal Focus/Integration) Team-Based Cohesive People-Focused (patagonia)
Adhocracy Culture Adhocracy Culture: (Flexibility/Discretion; External Focus/Differentiation) Innovative, Agile, Risk-Taking Entrepreneurial-Focused (Google)
IPO heuristic Input, process, output
Punctuated equilibrium sequence of team development during which not much gets done until the halfway point of a project, after which teams make necessary changes to complete the project on time
Task interdependence refers to the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team
Disjunctive tasks tasks with an objectively verifiable best solution for which the member with the highest level of ability has the most influence on team effectiveness
Conjunctive tasks tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities of the team's weakest link
Additive tasks: tasks for which the contributions from every member add up to determine team performance
Similarity‑attraction approach A theory explaining that team diversity can be counterproductive because people tend to avoid interacting with others who are unlike them
Task interdependence moderate positive effect on team performance, weak relationship with team commitment
Hybrid outcome interdependence Members receive rewards that are dependent on both their team's performance and how well they perform as individuals
Boundary spanning Ambassador activities, Task coordinator activities, Scout activities
Scout activities refer to things team members do to obtain information about technology, competitors, or the broader marketplace
Task coordinator activities coordinate task‑related issues with people or groups in other functional areas
Ambassador activities refer to communications that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team
Taskwork process Taskwork processes are the activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks
Teamwork processes Teamwork processes refer to the interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the team's work, but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself
Team states refer to specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together
Team states (types) Cohesion, Potency, Mental models, Transactive memory
Potency The degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks
Transactive memory How specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory for the team
Positional rotation Positional rotation: gives members actual experience carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates
Initiating task behavior (directive)
consideration relationship behavior (supportive)
Follower readiness leader directed R1: unready R2: unready but willing to Follower directed R3: Able but unwilling, R4: able and willing and confident
R1 to R4 bell-shaped curve: telling (high task, low relationship) , selling (high,high), participating (low task, high relationship), delegating (low low)
Managers cope with complexity
Leaders cope with change
Transformational Leadership The ability to motivate followers to work for the collective good of the team or organization.
Transformational Leadership (4 Is) Idealized influence, Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation, Individualized consideration
Organizational power Legitimate power, Reward power, Coercive power
Personal Power Expert power, Referent power
Contingency factors of power Substitutability, centrality, discretion, visibility
visibility other know the leader and the resource he or she can use
discretion the leader has the freedom to make his or her own decision without being restrained by organizational rules
Consultation occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request
Ingratiation is the use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
Avoiding lose lose
Accommodating Accommodating (low assertiveness, high cooperation) occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way (lose‑win
Autocratic style: the leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit
Consultative style: the leader presents the problem to individual employees or a group of employees, asking for their opinions and suggestions
Facilitative style: the leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else's
Delegative style the leader gives an individual employee or a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision within some set of specified boundary conditions
Created by: hanyuewu