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Comp 19 information sheets for electrolytes - pharm tech

body loses salt through sweat
athletes drink sports drinks that contain salt before, during, and after exercise to minimize things like muscle cramps
serious salt imbalances, such as dehydration can lead to heart and nervous system problems
mineral salts found in the foods we eat and fluids we consume; form electrolytes when they dissolve in the fluids in our body
electrolytes Electrolytes are minerals that are involved in many essential processes in your body
sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, and potassium most common electrolytes in our body
electrolytes are essential for many heart, nerve, and muscle functions
electrolytes are electrically charged they conduct electrical impulses which the body needs to make muscle cells contract
kidneys filter electrolytes from the blood and work to keep their levels constant in the blood
hormones that help regulate electrolyte balance ADH (antidiuretic hormone), aldosterone and parathyroid hormone
body does a balancing act to keep water and electrolyte levels just right
most common electrolyte imbalances sodium and potassium
hyponatremia low sodium; most common electrolyte imbalance associated with kidney disease or drinking too much water without consuming enough salt i.e. sweating in hot weather
treatment for hyponatremia sodium and water intravenously
hypernatremia high sodium; caused by excessive fluid loss, diabetes, diarrhea, vomiting or certain meds
treatment for hypernatremia slowly replenishing water loss, usually over 48 hours, through drinking or IV
hypokalemia low potassium; most commonly caused by diuretics or medicines which help rid the body of excess sodium and water
treatment for hypokalemia potassium supplements, foods rich in potassium, or intravenous potassium and water (some patients may be switched to a diuretic that doesn't have potassium loss as a side effect)
hyperkalemia high potassium; more serious than hypokalemia, usually caused by kidney failure or medications that reduce amount of medication excreted by kidneys
*high potassium levels can cause dangerous changes in the heart functions - it can even cause the heart to stop
treatment for hyperkalemia drugs that cause body to eliminate potassium
Created by: DbaileyC



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