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Lumbar/Sacrum Unit 8

AP Axial Sacrum CR 2" superior to pubic symphesis, 15 degrees cephalic (20 on females)
AP Axial Coccyx CR 2" superior to pubic symphesis, 10 degrees caudal
AP Axial SI Joints 1.5" superior to pubic symphesis, 30-35 degrees cephalic (35 for females)
oblique SI joint CR 1" medial to raised ASIS, pt oblique 25-30 degrees
Lateral sacrum CR at level of ASIS and 3.5" posterior
Lateral coccyx CR 2" inferior and 3.5" posterior to ASIS
Lateral sacrum/coccyx CR 2" inferior and 3.5" posterior to ASIS
Lumbar routine AP, 2 obliques, Lateral and L5S1 spot
AP Lumbar CR at iliac crest (for lumbosacral)
Lumbar oblique CR 2" medial to raised ASIS and 1.5" above crest, 45 degree oblique
Lateral Lumbar CR at iliac crest (only left laterals)
Lat L5S1 Spot CR 2" posterior to ASIS and 1.5" inferior to iliac crest
kyphosis abnormal forward curve of T spine
scoliosis abnormal lateral curve of the spine
spondylolisthesis one vertebra slips forward on the vertebra below
fibrocartilage disks between 2 bodies of vertebrae
spina bifida arch of the vertebrae fails to meet at the midline
slipped disk herniated nucleus pulposus HNP
HNP pulpy nucleus ruptures impinging on spinal nerve
last moveable joint in lower spine lumbosacral junction (L5S1)
pars interarticularis portion of lamina between 2 articular processes, commonly fx
zygapophyseal joint formed by inferior articular process of one vertebra and superior articular process of one below it, seen on oblique
intervertebral foramen formed by inf vertebral notch of one vertebra and superior vertebral notch of other, seen on lat
sacrum 5 segments, female more acute
sacral promontory anterior border
pelvic sacral foramina 4 pairs
sacral hiatus between cornu
sacral cornu sacral horn
medial sacral crest ridge on posterior surface
sacralization L5 fuses with S1, 4 lumbar
lumbarization S1 and S2 don't fuse, 6 lumbar
coccyx 3-5 (usually 4) coccageal segments, males curve more forward
reasons for not collimating too much for AP Lumbar looking for metastic rib lesions, rib fractures, kidney stones
AP Axial L5S1 (special view) CR 30-35 degrees cephalad, 1.5" above pubic symphesis
scoliosis series (basic) ap and lat erect, cR 1-2" below crest
scoliosis series (special) ap ferguson, ap right and left bending, lat flexion and extension
Ferguson 1st view standing normal, 2nd with one side elevated
dog front leg inf articular process
dog ear sup articular process
nose transverse process
eye pedicle
neck pars interarticularis
spondylolysis breaking down of vertebra
lordotic (secondary) curves cervical and lumbar, convex anteriorly
kyphotic (primary) curves thoracic and pelvic, concave anteriorly
lordosis abnormal increase in anterior convexity of lumbar or cervical curve
L4, L5 level of iliac crest
S1, S2 level of ASIS
process extending laterally and posteriorly from the body pedicles
process extending posteriorly from the junction of both laminae spinous process
process extending laterally from the pedicle-laminae junction transverse process
articular processes zygapophyses
solid anterior part of vertebrae body
connects the transverse process with the spinous process laminae
Created by: sandonblaise