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Europe and Russia

Key terms for Europe and Russia Unit.

European Union (EU) A supranational organization through which a number of European countries work together on shared issues.
supranational cooperation a form of international cooperation in which countries give up some control of their affairs as they work together to achieve shared goals.
centrifugal force a force that divides people and countries
centripetal force a force that unites people and countries
Push factors Something that encourages people to leave a place behind.
Pull factors Something that encourages people to move to a new place.
Common Market a group of countries that act as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries
trade bloc A group of countries that work together to promote trade with one another.
demography the study of human populations
birth rate The number of births in a year for every 1,000 people in a population.
death rate The number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in a population.
dependency ratio the number of old and young dependents who don't work compared with the working-age population
population pyramid A graph that shows the ages and sexes in a population, with the youngest ages as the bottom. The graph is often shaped like a pyramid.
life expectancy the average age a person in a given population can expect to live
replacement rate the total fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself
total fertility rate the average number of children a woman in a given population will have in her lifetime
Demographic transition model A model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy.
pollution Damage to the natural environment caused by harmful substances.
transboundary pollution pollution that starts in one country and crosses boundaries into other countries
acid rain rain that can damage the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke and car exhaust
nuclear radiation a form of energy that comes from nuclear reactions
river system a river and all the streams that flow into it
erosion the gradual wearing away of Earth's surface by the action of wind, water, ice, and gravity
glaciation the creation and movement of glaciers
physical processes natural forces that change Earth's physical features
tectonic movement the movement of plates below Earth's surface
volcanic activity the formation and eruption of volcanoes
Created by: Mallie