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Ch 18 notes

ch 18 endocrine system

endocrine system made up of the endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete into the bloodstream; the endocrine system works to maintain the body's normal internal balance (homeostasis), help the body deal with stressful situations; regulate growth and development, control reproduction and produce, use, and store energy
three glands located in head pituitary gland, hypothalmus, and pineal gland
pituitary gland control tower of the endocrine system; Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH); follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); growth hormone (GH); luteinizing hormone (LH), oxytocin; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone; production of thyroid hormone
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone; secretion of cortisol
GH growth hormone; stimulates growth of bones and soft tissue
FSH follicle stimulating hormone; promotes growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates estrogen secretion
LH luteining hormone stimulates sperm production, stimulates ovulation, stimulates estrogen and progesterone secretion
Prolactin promotes breast development; stimulates milk secretion
ADH antidiuretic hormone also known as vasopressin; causes water retention; affects kidneys, cardiovascular system, and CNS
oxytocin causes contractions and ejection of milk in breasts
hypothalamus releases and inhibits hormones; controls release of anterior pituitary hormones
pineal gland releases melatonin to set the body's "time clock"; causes sleep in response to darkness
thyroid gland produces three hormones that affect metabolism - thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin
T3 and T4 regulating the rate of metabolism of proteins, fats (lipids), and sugars (carbohydrates) throughout the body
calcitonin function is to inhibit the removal of calcium from bone
iodine necessary to thyroid gland to synthesize T3 and T4 (each hormone is named to indicate the number of iodine atoms in its structure)
parathyroid gland hormone (PTH); increase calcium and decrease phosphate in bloodstream
thymus production of T lymphocytes
pancreas largest endocrine organ; secretes insulin to promote the use and storage of nutrients, particularly glucose, after eating; glucagon to maintain glucose level in the bloodstream during periods of no food; somastatin inhibits digestion and absorption of nutrients
adrenal medulla epinephrine and norephinephrine; "flight or fight" response
adrenal cortex aldosterone increases sodium retention and potassium secretion; cortisol increases glucose in the bloodstream; androgens for female development and sex drive
testes (male) stimulates production of sperm, development of sex characteristics, and promotes sex drive
ovaries (female) estrogen to stimulates uterine and breast growth and development of sex characteristics and progesterone to prepare for pregnancy
Created by: DbaileyC



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