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IntroPsych-Chp5

Sensation & Perception(10th edition. McGraw-Hill, 2009)

TermDefinition
Sensory Receptor Cells Cells in sense organs that translate messages into neural impulses
Stimulus Any aspect of the outside world that directly influences our behavior or conscious experience
Transduction Translation of energy in the environment into neural impulses
Absolute Threshold Smallest magnitude of stimulus that can be detected 1/2 of the time
Difference Threshold Smallest DIFFERENCE between two stimuli that can be deducted 1/2 of the time
Sensory Adaptation Weakened magnitude of sensation resulting from prolonged presentation of stimulus. (when stimulus is continuously present or related at short intervals, sensation gradually becomes weaker)
Psychophysics Field of psychology; studies sensory limits, adaptations & related topics
Weber's Law The amount of change in a stimulus needed to be dented 1/2 of the time in direct proportion to intensity of original stimulus.
Electromagnetic Radiation Form of energy including electricity, radio waves & X-rays which is visible light a part.
Wavelength Frequency of light waves, which determines hue we perceive.
Cornea Protective coating on surface of eye that light passes
Iris Colored part of eye-behind the cornea-regulates amount of light enters eye
Pupil Opening of Iris
Lens Transparent portion of the eye--adjusts to focus light on retina
Ciliary Muscle Muscle in eye that control shape of the lens.
Retina Area at back of eye which images are formed & contains rods & cones
Rod 125 million cells located outside of center of retina. Transduce light waves into neural impulses, coding info about light & dark
Cones 6 million receptor cells, located mostly in the center of retina, transducer light waves into neural impulses, coding info about light dark AND color
Fovea Central spot of retina, contains greatest concentration of cones
RODs 4 differences to CONES 1. Location 2. Hundred times more sensitive to light 3. Produce sensations perceived w/less visual acuity 4. Rods to not detect color
Optic Nerve Carries neural message about vision to brain
Blind Spot Spot where Optic nerve attaches to Retina; it contains NO rods or cones
Optic Chiasm Area in brain where 1/2 of optic nerve fibers from each eye cross to opposite sides of the brain
Dark Adaptation INCREASED sensitivity of eye in semi-darkness following REDUCTION in overall illumination
Light Adaptation REGAINING sensitivity of eye to bright light following INCREASE in overall illumination
Audition Sense of hearing
Sound Waves Cyclical changes in air pressure that constitute stimulus for hearing
Frequency of Cycles Rate of vibration on sound waves; determine pitch
Hertz (Hz) Measurement of frequency of sound waves in cycles per second. (Car rental..haha)
Intensity Density of vibrating air molecules, which determine the loudness of sound
Pitch Experience of sound vibrations sensed as high or low
Decibel (db) Measurement of the intensity of perceived sound
Timbre Characteristic quality of a sound as determined by the complexity of the sound wave
What are the parts of the Outer Ear Pinna- External Auditory Canal-
What are the parts of the Middle Ear Eardrum- Hammer- Anvil- Stirrup-
What are the parts of the Inner Ear Oval Window; Cochlea; Round Window; Basilar membrane; Organ of Cortisones;
Pinna External part of the ear (the part sticking out on the side of your head)
External auditory canal Tube connecting the pinna to the middle ear; part of outer ear
Eardrum thin membrane that sound waves cause to vibrate; structure of middle ear
Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup 3 linked bones of the middle ear. Pass wound waves to the inner ear
Oval Window Membrane of inner ear that vibrates in response to movement of stirrup, creating the flute of cochlea
Cochlea Spiral structure of inner ear that is filled w/fluid & contains restores for hearing
Round Window Membrane that relieves pressure from vibrating waves in Cochlear fluid
Basilar membrane Lower membrane that separate two tubes of Cochlea; Organ of Corti rests
Organ of Corti Sensory receptor in Cochlea that transduce sound waves into coded neural impulses.
Created by: edarr