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ch 17

therapeutic agents for the nervous system - pharm tech

Central Nervous system consists of the brain, brainstem, and the spinal cord
nerves enable the body to perform involuntary activities, such as regulating heartbeat, digesting a meal, or interpreting visual signals
stimuli changes within or outside our body
peripheral nervous system outside the CNS and includes afferent and efferent branches; carries messages from the body to the CNS for interpretation; divided into autonomic and somatic systems
afferent sensory; transmits impulses from the body's organs and tissues to the CNS which interprets the signals
efferent motor; relays interpreted impulses to appropriate organs to trigger an effect
somatic nervous system relays motor impulses to skeletal muscles; sends and receives impulses to and from the muscles; nerve network that relays messages from outside the body to the CNS and returns messages; includes spinal and cranial nerves; regulate motor nerves that control voluntary skeletal muscle actions and sensory receptor impulses; receptor sites sense stimuli like smell, taste, touch, and hearing
autonomic nervous system, ANS ANS; transmits motor impulses to smooth muscle like the muscle surrounding the blood vessels, cardiac muscle, and glandular tissue; regulates the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
ANS has two main branches - sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)
brain and spinal cord relay messages outward to the body where they may trigger an effect
polyneuropathy manifests as distal loss of sensation, burning, or weakness depending on the involved nerves
many causes of polyneuropathy diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse, HIV infection, and certain medications' adverse effects
diabetic neuropathy common form of polyneuropathy; nerve damage is believed to be the root cause; blood glucose management is cornerstone of treatment for symptoms; numbness to tingling in feet is common area
Sympathetic Nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system; responds to stressful situations; instinctive, or autonomic response
main neurotransmitters of SNS norepinephrine and epinephrine
four receptor types that respond to norepinephrine and epinephrine neurotransmitters alpha-1 receptors, alpha-2 receptors, beta-1 receptors, and beta-2 receptors
alpha-1 receptors peripheral blood vessels, heart, and eyes
alpha-2 receptors found in smooth muscle
beta-1 receptors found in heart muscle
beta-2 receptors found in the respiratory system, blood vessels, and elsewhere in body
adrenergics drugs that mimc natural SNS neurotransmitters; also called sympathomimetics
sympatholytics block drug action; named after the specific receptor they inhibit (i.e. beta blockers)
PSNS parasympathetic nervous system; activates digestive system; works while we rest
main neurotransmitter of PSNS acetylcholine
cholinergic agents activate PSNS; mimic acetylcholine or stop its destruction by acetylcholinerase, an enzyme
parasympathomimetics cholinergic drugs that mimic the PSNS
anticholinergics inhibit cholinergic reactions or block receptors
parasympathetic receptors respond to acetylcholine are located on smooth and cardiac muscle cells
Created by: DbaileyC



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