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Rad Bio & Protec. 2

TermDefinition
Radionuclide An unstable atom that gives off energy A radioactive atom
Nucleon Refers to all the particles within a nucleus All the subatomic particles within a nucleus Generally refers to protons and neutrons
Nuclear fission Most closely associated with nuclear bombs and nuclear reactors. Certain atoms can be made unstable when they are bombarded with neutrons. Unstable atom undergoes splits in two. Sets off a chain reaction generating huge amounts of energy.
Nuclear fusion Type of energy primarily used to power the sun. This process involves the combination of two lighter atoms, to form a heavier atom. Does not result in radioactive waste and there’s no risk of radioactive meltdown
Half life Also used in pharmacology to determine how long it takes for a half of a medication to be eliminated from the body. Used to express the time it takes for radioactive material to decay by half Plot as an exponential decrease on a graph
Alpha particle Similar to a helium atom. Positively charged radioactive decay particle Attracted by the negative side of an electric field Weighs about 8000 times as much as an electron Can be stooped by a sheet of paper
Beta Particle A type of radioactive decay that can either be an electron or a positron. Weighs the same as an electron. Is attracted to the positive side of an electric field Is affected by a magnetic field Can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum
Gamma Ray/particle Radioactive decay that has neither mass nor charge In more penetrating than x-rays Is not affected by electric or magnetic fields Originates from a radioactive nucleus.
X-ray Is formed when electrons bombard a target material. Is used in medical imaging to view internal structures. Is contained inside CT machines Can be stopped by lead
Naturally background radiaiton Examples are radiation from food, certain rocks, from space (cosmic), the sun. The type of radiation that is not man made
Man made radiation The type of radiation that is created by humans. The type of radiation that's primarily used in medical imaging. Examples are the source of CT, x-ray tubes, bone density, nuclear medicine.
Isotope Type of radiation source used in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. Elements with same proton number, different neutron number
Becquerel SI unit of radioactivity. Replaced the old of radioactivity Named after the scientist who discovered 'discharge rays'.
Radioactivity When an unstable atoms emits energy in an effort to become stable. The emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
Cumulative dose Total amount of radiation received in a given period of time. The type of dose that is recorded over a specific time period. Includes the radiation received by multiple examinations.
Positron A positively charged beta particle. A type of beta decay Particle with same mass as an electron, but with a positive charge
Molecules Group of atoms bonded together. Consists of two or more atoms
Organ system Consists of multiple organs working together. Examples, digestive system, respiratory system, etc.
Ion Charged atom Can either be an anion or cation
Created by: colledgeisbs