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Test 2 for breaker

Pathology

QuestionAnswer
Shaft of bone diaphysis
expanded part of diaphysis metaphysis
Part of growing bone across the epipyseal zone from diaphysis epiphysis
Multilayered bony and cartilaginous structure between diaphysis and epiphysis where bone growth takes place Epiphyseal zone or plate
hollow center of the shaft of a long bone marrow is found here Medullary cavity
Is the hard, ivory like outer surface of bones. Also called compact bone "cortical bone"
Composed of a weblike arrangement of bone called trabeculae seperated by marrow spaces cancellous or spongy bone
Foot has how many phalanges? 14 Phalanges
foot has how many metatarsals? 5 metatarsals
Foot has how many tarsals 7 tarsals
Why is the 1st phalanx on the foot and hand different from the rest? they only a distal phalanx and a proximal phalanx they don't have a Middle phalanx
base and head on the Phalanx are where? Base on proximal end and head on distal end
For the foot you center where? base of 3rd metatarsal
For ap of foot what's the angle? 15 degrees cephalic
for oblique of the foot which way do you rotate the foot? 30 degrees internal/medial
For a true lateral of foot you make sure what? it's completely superimposed
What are the views to see sesamoid fx? Lewis and Holly
Lewis method is? toes down on ir and cr perpendicular and tangential to the first mtp joint
Holly method is? heel against Ir with toes pulled forward cr perpendicular and tangential to the first mtp joint
Where do you center for an ankle? ankle joint between malleoli
for an Ankle oblique you rotate the ankle how many degrees to what side? 45 degrees medial/internal
for an ankle Mortise you rotate ankle how many degrees to what side? 15-20 degrees medial/internal
where do you center for calcaneus with what angle of cr? Center midline of foot level with base of 3rd metatarsal. Cr angle 40 degrees cephalic
On lateral ankle what must be superimposed? malleolus
which malleolus is more distal on the ankle? lateral malleolus
On ankle 45 oblique what is the view on tib fib? tib fib open
on ap ankle what is the view of tib fib? tib fib overlap
tibia has a natural angle of? 10-20 degrees down
If a pt measures from asis 18cm and below what do you angle for knee? 5 degrees caudad
If they measure 19-24cm what angle for knee? perpindicular
If they measure 25 and up what's the angle for the knee? 5 degrees cephalic
Where is the base and apex of patella? base is proximal and apex is distal
Plantar surface is located where? behind patella
For knee where do you center? 1/2" below apex of patella
On the lateral knee what's important Epicondyles must be superimposed
What side of femor is lower by what angle? medial condyle is lower by 5-7 degrees
What views to see intercondylar fossa? Homblad, camp-conventry, beclare
pt on all 4's. Cr perp. to ir. 20 degree angle between tib and cr. and 70 degree angle from Tib to Ir homblad
tib parallel to ir 40 degree caudal angle of cr and 40 degree angle of lower leg. camp-conventry
pt supine knee bent and elevated cr angled 30 degrees cephalic beclare
Patella PA requires what? 15 degree medial rotation of knee
What's Danelius-miller x-table surgical lateral? true lateral hip
What is it called when malleolaus pop off potts fx- bimalleolar fx
When all malleolus is fx'd Trimalleolar fx
When base of 5th metatarsal is fx Jones fx
The fx through physis Salter Harris fx type 1-
fracture partway through the physis extending up into metaphysis Salter Harris fx type 2, most common
fracture partway through the physis extending down into the epiphysis Salter Harris fx type 3
fracture through the metaphysis, physis, and epiphysis — can lead to angulation deformities when healing Salter Harris fx type 4
crush injury to the epiphysis Salter Harris fx type 5
when the bone is displaced from a joint or the articular contact is completely lost.Subluxation is a partial dislocation Dislocation/ (luxation)
A fracture of the wrist in which the distal radius is fractured and displaced posterior Colles fracture
Fx that commonly involves the distal 4th or 5th metacarpal Boxer’s fracture
Compression of median nerve as it passes through the carpal sulcus. Symptoms include numbness in fingers and loss of strength. Surgery to cut “release” the flexor retinaculum tendon provides relief. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Uric acid build-up in the joints. CHF patients on long term diuretics are susceptible. Gout Arthritis
a chronic, systemic autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints, where it causes inflammation and destruction Rheumatoid Arthritis
The most common form of arthritis, Can be inflammatory or erosive and destructive, resulting in destruction of the joint cartilage Osteoarthritis Degenerative Joint Disease - DJD
An overgrowth of cartilage that often calcifies Osteophytes
what part of scapula is most anterior caracoid
the groove between greater and lesser tubercle intertubercular groove- bicipital
greater tubercle in profile for what view external view
for lateral shoulder what side is up? none effected
for infersuperior shoulder what angle is used? 15-30 degrees cephalic
for superioinferior shoulder what angle is used? 5-15 degrees caudal - away from body
What's the neer- outlet view? acromion- clavicular joint view pa/obl
Where do you center and angle for neer- "outlet" center mid of scapula with 15 degree angle caudal
For ap clavicle what's the angle? 15-30 degrees cephalic
why do you do an axial for clavicle? what's the angle? to get ribs out of the way with a 15-30 degree caudal angle
what's the best view for coronoid olecronon process? lateral elbow
Ap of elbow you can't see what? radial tuberosity
external rotation of elbow you see? radial head and neck
internal rotation of elbow you see? olecronon process, coronoid process, medial epicondile
distal radius fx? cole's fx
Why is humerus best shot at Pa? less OID
most carpal fx in wrist navicular/scaphoid
20 degree angle of the hand or CR ulna deviation and it's also known as stetcher
A soft innervertebral disk protrudes and presses on spinal cord or nerves herniateed nucleus pulposus (HNP)
what exams are used to view HNP? and which is least invasive? Xray CT MRI. CR MRI least invasive
lateral curbature of vertebral column often with rotation in vertebrae scoliosis
congentital condition where posterior aspects of vertebrae fail to develop. exposing spinal cord?... mostly seen in? spina bifida-L5
extensive enough to allow herniation of spinal cord spina bifida aperta
defects are covered with skin and all three nemimges are intact thus evident only on radiograph spina bifida occulta
Defect of the pars interarticularis, often from fracture. Spondylolysis
The forward movement of one vertebra on another. An oblique of the lumbar region will demonstrate the pars. Most often seen at L4/5 and L5/S1 Spondylolisthesis
fractures that are commonly the result of osteoporosis Compression Fractures
about how many people die in the us because of Compression Fractures? 700,000 cases of compression fractures due to osteoporosis occur each year in the United States.
degenerative joint condition that causes slow deterioration of the disks. Osteoarthritis of the Spine (Degenerative joint Disease) (DJD)
Compression Fractures are fixed with balloon tamp
C and L spine has what type of curve Convex- lordotic
T spine has what type of curve concave- kyphotic
what view can you see the intervertebral foramen in C spine 45 degree oblique AP-side up, PA-side down
what view can you see the intervertebral foramen in T spine Lateral
what view can you see the intervertebral foramen in L spine Lateral
what view can you see the zygapophyseal joint in C spine Lateral
what view can you see the zygapophyseal joint in T spine 70 degree oblique ap side up, pa side down
what view can you see the zygapophyseal joint in L spine 30-60 degree obique ap side down, pa side up
C1 also known as Atlas
C2 Also known as Axis
What views to see odontoid open mouth, fuchs, judd
What's otonello? wagging jaw to see entire c-spine
C7 is also known as Vertebral prominence
how is anode heel effect done with t spine? Big side under cathode
Swimmers also known as twinning
swimmers is used to see C7-T2
where do u center for L5-S1? 2.5 inches posterior to ASIS 1.5 inches inferior to crest
For sacroiliac joints what's side intrest side up
False pelvis is more... inferior
What angle for coccyx? 10 degree caudal
What angle for sacrum 15 degree cephalic
a break which does not extend all the way across the diameter of a bone. part of the bone is bent Greenstick fx
fractures are complete breaks at more or less a 90 angle to the shaft of the bone. Transverse fx
fractures run at an acute angle across the shaft of a bone, leaving sharp fragments on both sides. Thus there can be associated soft tissue injury such as lacerated muscles, nerves or blood vessels. Oblique
fractures are superficially similar to oblique fractures, but there is an important difference. This kind of fracture is caused by twisting force or torque. This kind of injury is seen in sports and in criminal assault cases. Spiral
fractures are typified by many (more than 2) fragments Comminuted
is a special case of fracture that occurs when a ligament or tendon is torn away from the bone to which it is attached. Avulsion
the cortex on one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent. When the bone straightens a faint fracture or wrinkle like defect is seen on the opposite side Green stick fx
fx that enters at an angle toward the middle of the bone and exits the same side butterfly fx
piece of bone that completely breaks off segmental
crack in bone incomplete fx
found only in the limbs (femur, tibia, phalanges) long bones
carpals and tarsals are what kind of bones short
sternum, ribs cranium are what type of bones flat
vertebrae, pelvis facial bones are what type of bone? irregular
inside and beside tendons (patella) what type of bones? sesamoid
sacrum location from asis 3.5 inches posterior to ASIS
coccyx location from asis 3.5 posterior & 2 inches inferior to ASIS
hand consists of how many bones 27 bones
how many metacarpals 5 metacarpals
how many phalanges 14 phalanges
how many carpals 8 carpals
Center for finger PIP joint
1-3 finger you rotate to which side? Medial
Created by: 1145508893