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Vocab for L. America

Unit 3 Vocabulary- Chapters 9,10,11

llanos A large, grassy, treeless area in South America, used for grazing and farming
cerrado a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall, which make it suitable for farming
pampas a vast area of grassland and rich soil in south-central South America
rain forest a forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of differentspecies of broadleaf trees
slash-and-burn a way of clearing fields for planting by cutting trees, brush, and grasses and burning them
terraced farming an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes
push factors a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region
pull factors a factor that draws or attracts people to another location
infrastructure the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
Spanish Conquest the conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
mestizo people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage
maquiladoras a factory in Mexico that assembles imported materials into finished goods for export
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement, an important trade agreement creating a huge zone of cooperation on trade and economic issues in North America
calypso a style of music that began in Trinidad and combines musical elements from Africa, Spain, and the Caribbean
reggae a style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion
Tenochtitlan the ancient Aztec capital city which is the site of Mexico City today
cultural hearth a place from which important ideas spread
Panama Canal a ship canal that was built to connect the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean
informal economy jobs which take place outside official channels, without benefits or protections for workers such as street vending, shining shoes, and other small services
Inca people who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains in the 15th and 16th centuries
Quechua the language of the Inca Empire, now spoken in the Andes Highlands
Mercosur an economic common market that began operating in the southern cone of S. America in 1995
Treaty of Tordesillas a treaty between Spain and Portugal in 1494 that gave Portugal control over the land that is present-day Brazil
Carnival the most colorful feast day in Brazil celebrated in the week before the beginning of Lent
samba A Brazilian dance with African influences
capoeira a martial art and dance that developed in Brazil from Angolans who were taken there by the Portuguese from Africa
biodiversity the variety of organisms within an ecosystem
deforestation the cutting down and clearing away of trees and forests
global warming the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, preventing heat from escaping into space and causing rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns
debt-for- nature swap a debt-reducing deal wherein an organization agrees to pay off a certain amount of government debt in return for protection of a certain portion of rain forest
oligarchy government run by a few persons or small group
junta a government run by generals after a military takeover
caudillo a military dictator or political boss
land reform the process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers
favelas slums in Brazil
North American Free Trade Agreement, an important trade agreement creating a huge zone of cooperation on trade and economic issues in North America
Created by: kimseale