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Imaging Operations

Structure of Matter

1913 Niels Bohr (Bohr atom) miniature solar system
Nucleus protons and neutrons most mass weight- 2000 times more mass than an electron
Atomic mass # protons + neutrons
max # of electrons 2n^2 K-1 L-2 M-3
Isotope different neutrons
centripetal force keeping electrons from flying out
centrifugal force preventing electrons from getting close to the nucleus
the close to the nucleus the higher binding energy which needs more energy to get kicked out
ionic electron transfer
covalent sharing electrons
ionization ionizing radiation hits electron, electron kick out, ion pair remains (+1 atom and -1 free electron)
Gamma rays (ionizing radiation) comes from nucleus
x-rays (ionizing radiation) outside the nucleus
difference between x-rays and gamma rays origin
alpha particle helium nucleus contains no electrons
beta particles electron emitted from nucleus of radioactive atom atomic mass of zero, can penetrate, negative charge
radioactive half life time required for a quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to 1/2 its original value
energies that keep the orbiting electrons in the place around the nucleus radiant, centripetal, centrifugal, electron binding energies