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Imaging Operations

Essential Concepts of Radiologic Science

Nov 8, 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Crookes Tube - cathode rays
1886 Pupin & Edison 1st flouroscope - calcium tungstate
1899 Rollins Apeture diaphgrams (collimation) 1st x-ray filters
1913 Bucky Grid Cooliage Tube (thermionic emmission)
1921 Potter Moving grid
1929 Jackson 1st rotating anode
1942 Morgan AEC
1948 Electronic Image intensifier- reduced exposure 1/100th than previous levels
1970 1st computer CR (doubled dose)
1979 Digital flouro
1982 PACS
1996 1st demonstration of DR Post processing (decreased dose to patients)
X-ray characteristics travel straight, stopped by lead, cast partial shadow
1896 1st xray unit installed at Massachusetts General Hospital
Latent image xrays stored in PSP plate
Photocathodes light into electrical energy indirect DR
Post processing decrease repeat exposure decrease in radiation decrease in exposure
All things in the universe consist of... matter and energy
Physics study of energy and matter
Matter takes up space, mass, k/g definition and composition
Element pure substance (Hydrogen)
atom smallest single unit
compound two or more different elements are joined
molecule two or more atoms are joined
Barium sulfate suspension mixture of BaSO4 and H20, which never chemically combine
Pure barium sulfate powder compound BaSO4 6 atoms and 3 elements( oxygen, sulfur, barium)
Energy "ability to change the motion or state of an object, the ability to do work" many forms, Joules (J), is conserved,
Types of Energy potential (to do work), kinetic (in motion), EM energy (spectrum)
Law of Conservation of energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, it can change form ex. when an electron drops down form a high shell
Electromagnetic wave disturbance in magnetic field perpendicular to magnetic wave
Particle charged and vibrate
radiation transfer of magnetic waves
Electromagnetic Energy combination of electric and magnetic fields traveling through space - increase in EM, increase in frequency
photon energy and frequency are directly related
frequency and wavelength are inversely related
wave particle duality behaves like a wave, acts like a particle
EM Energy- Xrays high penetration, invisible, dual nature, wavelength and frequency inverse, absorbed, scattered, speed of light, cause chemical change
Velocity of all EM radiation C V(C) speed of light 3x10^3 m/sec
Wave equation v=f λ
Units of measure Mass (kilogram) Time (Sec) Length (Meter)
1932 First dose limits
1928 # ionization in given quantity of air how many pairs created
Exposure (X-ray intensity) Conventional= Roentgen international= Gya (Air Kerma)
Absorbed dose 1953 Measures amount of energy absorbed Rad, Rem, SV Conventional= Rad SI unit = Gy
1 Gy= 100 rad
Radioactivity (Ci, Bq)
Air Kerma kinetic energy released in matter SI unit- Gray
Effective Dose occupational dose measured (sum of equivalent doses of specific tissues) Rad, Rem, SV Conventional= Rem SI unit= SV
Activity describes quantity of radioactive material