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# Materials

What is Hooke's law The extension of a spring is directly proportional to its tension, within the limit of proportionality
What is the formula for Hooke's law F=kx
What is the limit of proportionality The point at which F is no longer proportional to x
What is the elastic limit The point beyond which an object no longer returns to its original dimensions once the force is removed
What is the equation for strain ε=x/L
What are the units for strain Strain has no units because it is a ratio
Why is the extension per unit force smaller for objects with a larger cross sectional area The load is being supported over a larger cross sectional area
What is the equation for stress σ=F/A
What is the equation for Young's modulus E=σ/ε
Define strain Extension per unit length
Define stress The force per unit area of a material, where force is at right angles to the surface
Define Young's modulus The stress to strain ratio within the limit of proportionality (define sub terms: stress and strain)
Define UTS Ultimate tensile strength, the maximum stress before failure
Define Elastic behaviour Returns to original dimensions when force is removed
Define Plastic behaviour Does not return to its original dimensions when the force is removed
Define stiffness The force to extension ratio within the limit of proportionality
Define malleable Under compression, can be beaten out into a sheet,may lose strength
Define ductile Under tension or extension can be drawn out into a wire, does not lose strength
Define hardness Resistance to scratching or abrasion
Define brittle Fails or breaks before plastic deformation
Define tough -Difficult to break -Resistant to deformation -Absorbs energy under compression
Define strength Withstands high stresses before failure
Define viscosity Resistance to flow
What is Moh's scale of hardness 1:Talc 2:Gypsum 3:Calcite 4:Fluorspar 5:Anathasite 6:Orthoclose 7:Quartz 8:Topaz 9:Corundum 10:Diamond
What type of test do we do to determine a materials position in the Moh's scale of hardness Scratch test
Define density The mass per unit volume
What is the equation for density ρ=m/v
How do we calculate density for a regular solid -Measure mass using balance -Measure dimensions with vernier calipers -Calculate volume -Calculate density
How do we calculate density for a liquid -Measure mass of empty measuring cylinder -Pour liquid in -Measure volume of liquid -Measure the mass of the cylinder when full -Subtract the mass of empty cylinder -Calculate density
How do we calculate the density of an irregular solid -Measure mass -Immerse object on a thread into a eureka can -Measure the volume of water displaced -Calculate density
What does the area under a Fx graph represent Elastic potential energy stored in object OR the work done in stretching object
What is the equation for elastic potential energy Ee=0.5kx^2
How do we find the area under a curve -Choose square measurement -Calculate joules per square -Count squares and add triangles -Multiply no of squares by joules per square REMEMBER to mark up the graph
Why is there a difference between the Fx graphs for loading and unloading Some of the energy stored in the object is transferred to the internal energy of the molecules, due to friction
Explain the stretching process for rubber -Rubber is a polymer -When unstretched the molecules are tangled -When stretched they straighten out -When tension is removed it returns to its original length
Explain the stretching process for Polythene -When unstretched molecules are tangled -When stretched they straighten out -When tension is removed it does not return to its original shape
Define polymer A chain of repeating monomers
Define creep A material moving by dislocation
Define netting A decrease in x-sectional area
Define yield point A large extension is produced for a very small increase in force
Define laminar flow Each particle has a constant velocity, it tends to occur at low velocities.
What is the criteria for fluid diagrams -At least 5 paths -Paths can't cross -Recumbent flow must be >180 degrees
Define turbulent flow Velocity is not constant for each particle, back eddies form, tends to occur at high velocities
What is the equation for stokes law F=6πrηv
What is the equation for terminal velocity v(term)=(2r^2 g(ρ(s)-ρ(l)))/9η
For a liquid what is the relationship between temperature and viscosity Temperature increases, viscosity decreases
For a gas what is the relationship between temperature and viscosity Temperature increases, viscosity increases
Created by: Liam P
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