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Pathology Chap 3

Respiratory System

ventilation movement of air and out of the lungs
diffusion gas exchange between the lungs and circulatory system
frontal sinus fully developed at 10 years old
maxillary and ethmoid sinus only sinuses present at birth
sphenoid sinus develop at 2-3 years old
Increase exposure when fluid is in the lungs
lateral decubitus diagnosing free air in the pleural space or fluid
mediastinal emphysema disruption in the esophagus or airway and air is trapped in the mediastinum ex. chest trauma, violent vomiting
subcutaneous emphysema when air is under the skin of the chest or neck (crepitation)
respiratory failure lack of function or a lack of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
hypoxemia low oxygen levels within arterial blood and results from failure of the gas exchange function ex. upper airway obstruction, insufficient respiratory drive and muscle fatigue, dysfunction of the CNS
hypercapnia failure of ventilation resulting in the inability to move air into and out of the lungs ex. upper airway obstruction, insufficient respiratory drive and muscle fatigue, dysfunction of the CNS
cystic fibrosis genetic defect transmitted as an autosomal recessive gene that affects the function of exocrine glands
respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease) affects premature infants or those born at less than 37 weeks -incomplete maturation of type 2 alveolar cells, causing unstable alveoli -rapid and labored breathing within 24 hours
Pneumonia inflammation of the lung and pulmonary function - caused by bacteria 8th leading cause of death in USA
pneumoncoccal pneumonia bacteria present in healthy throats - when defenses are weakened and the bacteria gets into the lung and inflame the alveoli
staphylococcal pneumonia occurs sporadically except during epidemic of influenza
legionnaires' disease severe bacterial pneumonia that killed 4 people attending an AMerican Legion convention in Philly - warm, moist places -transmits through heating and cooling systems -malaise, muscular aches, chest pain with nonproductive cough, vomiting, diarrhea
mycoplasma pneumonia caused by mycoplasmas (smallest group of living organisms) - act like bacteria and viruses -reticular pattern and patchy areas of air space
aspiration pneumonia acid vomitus aspirated into the lower respiratory tract, resulting in chemical pneumonitis -may follow by anesthesia, alcoholic intoxication, or stroke that causes loss of cough reflex
viral pneumonia caused most commonly by influenza A and B - spread by infected person -dry cough, fever
bronchiectasis permanent, abnormal dilation of one or more large bronchi as a result of destruction of the elastic and muscular components of the bronchial wall
pulmonary tuberculosis infection caused by inhalation of myobacterium tuberculosis
miliary tuberculosis large numbers of bacteria are picked up and carried via the bloodstream throughout the body -looks like millet seeds (white grain)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group of disorders that cause chronic airway obstruction - chronic bronchitis and emphysema (asthma and bronchiectasis)
chronic obstructive bronchitis arises from long term, heavy cigarette smoking or prolonged exposure to high levels of industrial air pollution - persistant cough and phelgm
emphysema lungs alveoli become distended, loss of elasticity or interference with expiration -dyspnea
asthma chronic inflammation of the bronchial system resulting in airway obstruction and bronchial hyper responsiveness extrinsic asthma- allergens intrinsic- aggravated by exercise, temp or emotional upset
pneumoconioses results in pulmonary fibrosis from inhalation of foreign inorganic dust
anthracosis (pneumoconioses) black lung disease -inhale coal dust
silicosis (pneumoconioses ) inhale silica (quartz) dust
asbestosis (pneumoconioses) inhale asbestos dust - in buildings and insulation
progressive disseminated histoplasmosis when the immune system is not effective at controlling and overcoming the fungal infection -opportunistic infection acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
histoplasmosis fungal infection from soil that has bird and bat bacteria
lung abscess localized area of dead lung tissue surrounded by inflammatory debris
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura - indicative of a serious condition (pneumonia, pulmonary embolism)
pleural effusion excess fluid collects in the pleural cavity -comes from a serious thoracic disease
exudates pleural effusion by inflammation
transudates pleural effusion result from microvascular changes associated with heart failure or ascites
hemothorax follow trauma to the thorax or thoracic surgery
sinusitis infection and inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
bronchial carcinoid tumors (adenomas) usually benign - "lung cancer" -invade local tissues and treated much like malignant neoplasma
bronchogenic carcinoma common fatal primary malignancy - 90% of all lung tumors
coin lesion lung nodule
Things to consider when taking x-rays exposure factors, additive and subtractive pathologies, AEC
Endotracheal tube placement tip should be 5-7 cm above the carina Too low: air enters the right mainstem Too High: Air enters the stomach
Pleura of lung apex is deep to subclavian vein can cause a absence of lung markings pneumothorax
croup viral infections of young children. barking cough, inflammatory obstructive swelling localized tho the trachea, treated with cool mist and steroids