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Pathology Chap 1

Intro to Pathology

TermDefinition
Pathology study of disease
Disease abnormal disturbance of the function or structure of the human body from some type of injury
Pathogenesis Happens after injury, sequence of events producing cellular changes that lead to observable changes
Manifestation observable changes: symptom or sign
Symptom patients perception of the disease
Sign detected by the physician during examination: swelling, fever, rash
Syndrome group of signs and symptoms that characterize a specific abnormal disturbance
Asymptomatic do not produce symptoms
Etiology study of the cause of disease
Common Agents that cause diseases viruses, bacteria, trauma, heat, chemical agents, poor nutrition (molecular level: genetic abnormality)
Nosocomial disease hospital acquired disease ex. Staphylococcal infection (hip replacement sx)
Iatrogenic reaction adverse responses to medial treatment itself ex. collapsed lung that occurs in response to a complication that arises during arterial line placement
Idiopathic the disease is termed ______if no causative factor can be identified
Acute Short period, quick onset ex. pneumonia
Chronic Manifests more slowly and lasts a very long time ex. multiple sclerosis
Sequelae lasting effects that come after an acute illness or perviously acquired disease ex. stroke resulting in a long-term neurologic deficits
Diagnosis identification of a disease an individual is believed to have
Prognosis predicted course and outcome of the disease
Morphology structure of cells or tissue
Diseases that cause decrease atomic number and tissue thickness ex. Atrophy Subtractive, lytic, destructive ex. lower exposure technique
Diseases that increase the normal density of a tissue resulting in high atomic number or increase tissue thickness additive or sclerotic ex. higher exposure technique
Epidemiology investigation of disease in large groups ex. rate of occurrence, statistics annually
Prevalence number of cases found in a given population
Indidence number of new cases found in a given period
Endemic disease of a high prevalence in an area where a causative organism is commonly found with term the location.... ex. Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease of the respiratory system endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys
Epidemic wide spread occurrence of a disease to a large number of people in a given population
How many pairs of chromosomes in the human body 22 pairs
Atrophy decrease in cell size
Hypertrophy increase in cell size
Hyperplasia increase in the number of cells in a tissue from excessive proliferation
Metaplasia conversion of one sell type to another that is not normal for that tissue ex. epithelial cells in the respiratory tract of a smoker undergo this as a response to the irritation from the chemicals
Dysplasia abnormal changes occurring in mature cells ex. precancerous, more commonly associated with neoplasms in the reproductive system and respiratory tract
Congenital diseases present at birth from genetic or environmental factors * 2-3% of all births have one or more abnormalities
Hereditary disorders genetically transmitted form either parent through abnormal genes
Inflammatory disease body's reaction to a localized injurious agent: virus, bacteria or fungi ex. infective, toxic, allergic diseases
Virus has protein coat surrounding a genome of RNA or DNA without an organized cell structure, not capable of replicating outside of a living cell
Bacteria unicellular that lack a nucleus and can adapt ex. can become resistant to antibiotics over time
Fungi contain organelles and may grow as mold or yeast
Autoantibodies when antibodies are formed in response to foreign antigens but in some diseases they form against and injure the patient's own tissues ex. associated with autoimmune disorders
Debridement removal of dead cells and materials
Infection inflammatory process caused by a disease-causing organism
Virulence ease with which an organism can cause disease ex. organism with high virulence can produce progressive disease susceptible person while low virulence produces disease only in a highly susceptible person
Degenerative disease caused by deterioration of the body
Metabolism sum of all physcial and chemical processes in the body ex. diabetes
Traumatic diseases results from mechanical forces such as crushing or twisting of a body part or ionizing radiation
Neoplastic disease results in new, abnormal tissue growth
Proliferation cell division
Differentattion process of cellular specialization
Benign Neoplasm Non-lethal tumor
Metastatic spread spread of malignant cancer cells
Hematogenous spread spread through circulatory system
Lymphatic spread spread through lymphatic system
Invasion when cancer cells spread into surrounding tissue
Seeding when cancer cells spread to distant sites
Lesion cellular change in response to disease ex. wound, ulcer, tumor
Carcinoma cancer from epithelial tissue
Sarcoma cancer arises from connective tissue
Leukemia cancer blood cells
Lymphoma arises from lymphatic cells
Mortality rate average number of deaths cause by a particular disease
morbidity rate incidence of sickness sufficient to interfere with an individuals normal daily routine
Autoimmune disorder disease in which the body forms antibodies that injure patient's own tissues (autoantibodies)
Abscess localized, usually encapsulated, collection of fluid= zit
Pyogenic bacteria thick, yellow, called pus (dead white cells)
Metabolic disease caused by the disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body
Malignant neoplasm loss of control of tumor and is lethal and can spread
Curative care disease free 5 years
Paliative care relieve pain and improve quality of life when a cure is not possible
Grading how aggressive the disease is
Staging extensiveness of tumor at the site