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OAB POS1041 Final Exam Study Quiz

The power of departments, agencies, and bureaus of the federal bureaucracy to issue regulations about the ways laws will be implemented and enforced is based on their administrative rule-making authority
When the president commands the federal bureaucracy to implement or enforce a law in a particular way, it is called an executive order
When the president obligates the United States to a deal with foreign countries without seeking Senate approval as constitutionally required for all treaties, it is called an executive agreement
The War Powers Act of 1973 says the president can commit U.S. troops to combat overseas for no longer than __________ without authorization from Congress 60 days
When the president makes appointments to his cabinet or makes nominations for vacant Supreme Court positions, the Senate must approve them by a majority vote as part of its ____________ specified in the Constitution. advice and consent role
The advice and consent role of the Senate in the president's appointment of executive branch leaders and judges of the judicial branch is intended to serve as a check against the president appointing someone who is not qualified for the position. True
If someone is convicted of a federal crime but then has their conviction removed by presidential order as if it never occurred, it is because that person applied for and received a pardon
Independent regulatory agencies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which place regulations on various types of economic activities in order to protect the public interest, are part of federal bureaucracy of the executive branch
The chairman of the Federal Reserve Board (the Fed) is often referred to as the Fed Chief
Independent executive agencies of the federal bureaucracy, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), are independent of the larger 15 cabinet departments because they have more specialized missions that are believed to benefit from more focused management and administration
The individual who is head of the president's cabinet department overseeing education policy has the title of Secretary of Education
Persons who are appointed as judges in all three levels (tiers) of the federal judicial branch serve _________ terms of office. lifetime
The middle level of the three-tiered federal court system is the appellate court
In common law legal systems, like in the U.S., judges play a predominant role by deciding current court cases based on decisions made in prior court cases (precedents) and the written judicial opinions that explain them
A legal precedent is an interpretation of the law that was made in prior court cases that is used as guide in making decisions in current cases. True
The principle of judicial review, a legal precedent established by the judicial decision in the famous Marbury v. Madison case of 1803, established the authority of the judicial branch to nvalidate laws, or actions, made by the other branches of government if the judicial branch decides they are unconstitutional
Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy is considered the most important member of the current Supreme Court because he is the Chief Justice. False
An appeals court will never hear a case for the first time because it doesn't have original jurisdiction. True
In the process followed by the Supreme Court to determine which cases it will decide to hear, the Rule of Four refers to the minimum number of justices who must agree to hear it
When someone loses their case at the federal appeals court level and they apply to the Supreme Court to hear their case on final appeal, they file an application for a writ of certiorari
The middle tier of the federal judicial branch court structure is comprised of circuit courts
After a Supreme Court case is decided by a majority vote of the justices, one of the justices on the majority side will be selected to write the majority opinion
If only the liberal bloc of justices on the Supreme Court vote together when deciding a case, and the other justices cast votes against, the case will be decided in favor of the liberals. False
The justices on the current U.S. Supreme Court who are considered part of the liberal bloc include (indicate all that apply) Elena Kagan Ruth Bader Ginsburg Stephen Breyer Sonia Sotomayor
In the 2008 Supreme Court case of the District of Columbia versus Heller, Mr. Heller filed a lawsuit challenging the city of Washington, D.C.'s law in effect at that time prohibiting any resident of the city from owning a handgun. Mr. Heller said the law amicus curiae briefs
If an individual's or a family's annual household income is below a specified level the government believes is necessary to afford basic necessities, their income is defined as being below the poverty threshold
When prices for goods and services increase at a rate faster than the average person's income, it creates an economic condition called price inflation
Social welfare policy of the U.S. government seeks to address problems in American society associated with which two areas shown below? Select two answers. Income security Health care
Which of the programs below are examples of income security programs? Indicate ALL that apply. Social Security Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Unemployment insurance Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
Which of the income security programs below are non-means-tested programs? Indicate ALL that apply. Social Security Unemployment insurance
The government-run health care program for the elderly is Medicare
Medicare is a means-tested program. False
Managing revenues and expenditures as part of the federal fiscal year budget is an important part of the government's monetary policy. False
The annual budget deficit of the FY 2019 federal budget is about $23 trillion. False
Federal budget expenses the government is required by law to make are called __________ expenses, while ____________ expenses are optional. mandatory; discretionary
The nearly $700 billion expense for Defense in the FY 2019 federal budget is the single largest mandatory expense. False
A government entitlement program is one that if citizens meet the basic eligibility requirements of the program, then they are automatically entitled to receive benefit payments from the government. True
When the government decides what to tax in order to raise revenue, and how to spend the money it collects from taxpayers, it is engaged in developing fiscal policy
When the Federal Reserve adjusts the nation's money supply to either increase or decrease the amount of money available for use in the economy it is engaging in monetary policy
The cost to the government of selling U.S. Treasury Bonds in order to borrow the money it needs to cover its overspending in the federal budget is the interest it must pay to buyers of the bonds. True
If the Fed raises interest rates, it will have the impact of __________ the total level of spending in the U.S. economy reducing
When overall spending in the U.S. economy is reduced, it causes the prices of goods and services to either fall or rise more slowly
One of the monetary policy tools the Fed has to increase or decrease the amount of money available in the economy to be borrowed or spent is adjusting the reserve requirement of banks
The two superpower countries competing for international influence during the Cold War period were the United States and the Soviet Union
Two radical groups of the Mideast region the U.S. government considers to be terrorist organizations and fought against in recent wars are (select two correct answers) ISIS al-Qaeda
The top spy organization of the U.S. government that plays a key foreign policy advisory role to the president within the executive branch is Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The world's largest international organization, which is headquartered in New York City and brings together representatives from all of the world's countries to debate global issues, is the United Nations (UN)
A U.S. foreign policy advisor who advocates for strong U.S. military involvement in other countries to support U.S. national security interests is called a(n) interventionist
Research institutions that publish views on public policy issues, including foreign and defense policy, are called think tanks
The attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 were planned and carried out by al-Qaeda
The federal government cannot force the 50 U.S. states to follow its policies toward foreign governments because the authority to establish official relations with other countries is a reserve power of the states. False
When the United States government provides money to foreign countries for humanitarian or national security purposes, it is using the foreign policy tool of foreign aid
When the United States takes actions to address international problems in partnership with other countries instead of doing it alone, it is said to be taking ____________ action. multilateral
Members of the U.S. Foreign Service of the Department of State, who are stationed in foreign countries to handle American affairs there and to communicate American policies, are called diplomats
Two of the United States' most powerful international rivals, China and Russia, together spend much more money on military and defense than the United States. False
Someone who supports the foreign policy perspective of liberalism, and who also believes most international problems should be addressed through multilateral cooperation with other countries, is called a foreign policy dove
A foreign policy objective designed to protect or advance the national interest of the United States MAY involve which of the following actions (indicate ALL that apply) -Taking action to protect the country from physical harm -Securing international access to resources needed for the country's economic well-being -Punishing other countries who violate the human rights of their citizens -Pressuring other countries to
In its most pure form, free trade between countries means goods and services are allowed to move freely across country borders without tariffs
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