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Dosage Forms

Ch 5, pg. 102-111, comp 18, pharm tech

dosage form refers to the means by which a drug is available for use or the vehicle by which the drug is delivered
solids tablets, chewable tablets, enteric-coated tablets, extended release agents, sublingual (SL) tablets, capsules, caplets, lozenges, troches, implants capsules, patches
liquids syrups, elixirs, sprays, inhalant solutions, emulsions, suspensions, solutions, and enemas
semisolids creams, lotions, ointments, powders, gelatins, suppositories, inhalant powders
enteral route solids can be administered orally, rectally, or sublingually
parenteral term used to describe a medication that is usually given by injection into a vein, the skin, or a muscle
fillers inert substances (no active ingredient) that fill space or cover the tablet (sugar coatings)
sugar coatings on tablets improve taste and color or hide unpleasant odors
tablets that are scored allowed the tablet to be cut in half if needed
chewable tablets suitable for young children or for people who have diffuculty swallowing
enteric coated protect the drug from the acidic environment of the stomach until it reaches the more alkaline intestine
ODT orally disintegrating tablets; may be dissolved in the mouth without water, easing administration for individuals who have difficulty swallowing medication
caplet refers to the shape of the tablet; smoothed sided to make swallowing easier; they are not capsules, they are tablets with a shape similar to a capsule for ease of swallowing
tablets often identified by shape, color, and imprint codes determined by manufacturer
controlled-release formulations enable the patient to take the medication less often thus increasing compliance
tech note! dosage forms that are specifically made to release over time should not be crushed or broken into pieces unless they are scored and approved for such use because it alters the release process
capsules composed of a gelatin container and can have a hard or soft outer shell; the shells of hard capsules are composed of sugar, gelatin, and water
capsule manufacturer determines color and is used primarily for identification along with the capsule imprint code
spansules capsules that can be pulled apart to sprinkle the medication onto food for children; specially coated to slow the dissolving rate; can not be crushed or chewed
pulvule type of capsule shaped differently for identification purposes
soft-gelatin capsules gel caps; can't be pulled apart and often hold medications in liquid form
larger half of capsule known as the body
shorter half of capsule known as the cap
lozenges and troches forms of tablets not intended to be swallowed; they dissolve in the mouth which releases the medication more slowly; often aimed at local action in the mouth or throat
troches usually have a chalky consistency so that they can dissolve in the mouth
lozenges similar to a hard candy like cough drops
buccally in the cheek
biomaterials polymers (long chains of hydrocarbons) that combine with or encapsulate a drug so that the drug is released in a predetermined way to maintain a steady concentration of a drug dosing within the accepted therapeutic range or window for the drug
biomaterial dosage forms capsules, tablets, or implants designed to treat conditions without overdosing or underdosing the patient and improving patient compliance; i.e. Implanon contraceptive implant
implants sterile, solid dosage forms that consist of drugs and rate-controlling excipients usually intended for insertion (implantation) into a body cavity or under the skin
Zoladex a subcutaneous implant used for prostate cancer
Gliadel Wafer an implant which delivers chemo directly to the brain tumor site
Implanon a subdermal contraceptive rod that provides birth control that lasts for up to 3 years
transdermal patches solid pieces of material that hold a specific amount of medication to be released into the skin and absorbed into the bloodstream over time; easily applied and eliminate possible upset stomach
transdermal nitroglycerin patches Nitro-Dur; placed on the chest once daily
scopolamine patch Transderm Scop; motion sickness patches that can be left in place for 3 days
fentanyl transdermal patches Duragesic; chronic pain medication with a 3-day delivery system
nicotine patches most are sold OTC and help with smoking cessation
estrogen-containing transdermal patches suited for hormone replacement therapy or prevention of osteoporosis; most are changed once or twice weekly
tech alert! do not carelessly discard a medication patch in the garbage; wrap and discard in such a way that it can't be grasped
liquids composed of various mixtures and can be administered by many routes making them a popular choice for drug delivery; i.e. enemas, eye and ear preparations, cough syrups, etc
syrups sugar-based solutions into which medication has been dissolved; sugar improves the taste of the drug; tend to be thicker (more viscous) than water
examples of syrups Delsym (dextromethorphan)
elixirs clear, sweetened solutions that contain dissolved medication in a base of water and alcohol (hydroalcoholic base); alcohol is usually the solvent; sweeteners necessary to improve taste; have same consistency of water
examples of elixirs Dimetapp (brompheniramine / phenyleprine)
spirits aromatic solutions of drugs designed to evaporate quickly; alcohol based
examples of spirits peppermint spirit, camphor, and aromatic spirits of ammonia
sprays composed of various bases such as alcohol or water in a pump-type dispenser for a wide variety of products such as nasal decongestants and topical sunscreens
examples of sprays Afrin ( oxymetazoline nasal spray); Nitrolingual Pumpspray (nitroglycerin SL spray)
inhalants and aerosols must be delivered directly to the source of inflammation; medication particles must be extremely fine to reach areas effectively, such as the bronchial tree for example
inhaler agents must be easily inhaled into the lungs; i.e. vaporizers that distribute medications when agents are added to a container on the device; nebulizers
inhaled anesthetics solutions inhaled by a patient undergoing surgery; administered by an anesthesiologist
MDI metered dose inhalers; dispense a specific amount of drug with each puff or inhalation
DPI dry powder inhalers; breath-activated - the medication is released only when you take a deep, fast breath in through the inhaler to deliver medication to the lungs
aerosols some are used to deliver medication into the nasal passages, and some are inhaled orally into the respiratory tract
spacer such as an Aerochamber; used with an MDI to allow patient to take a breath of medication without worrying about timing or coordination; chamber holds medication until each puff can be inhaled because unless inhaled properly, drug would be swallowed instead of inhaled into the lungs where needed
examples of aerosol and MDI Proventil (albuterol) and Combivent Respimate (ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate MDI)
emulsion mixture of two or more immiscible liquids; in an emulsion, one liquid is dispersed throughout the other
emulsifier a substance that stabilizes an emulsion is often added to improve stabililty and dispersion; an emulsifier may be used to bind oil and water to hold both substances together; i.e. mayonnaise is composed of oil and water and uses egg yolks as an emulsifier to allow the product to form a smooth consistency
examples of emulsions Diprivan (propofol) and Restasis (cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion)
emulsions can be administered topically, orally, and even parenterally; lipids (aka fat) can be given parenterally for nutrional feedings
suspensions liquid dosage forms in which very small solid particles are suspended in the base solution; suspensions such as syrups and other solutions can be used orally by children and older individuals because the patient can take the medication more easily
oral suspensions auxiliary label should have a "Shake Well" auxiliary that is easily visible on the front of the bottle and in the directions; if reconstituted, a "use by" date must be on the label as well
suspension dosage forms topically, orally, in the eye or ear, rectally, and even parenterally
examples of suspensions Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) and Motrin (ibuprofen suspension)
tech note! allows shake oral suspensions before using; always follow manufacturers directions for handling;i.e. insulin suspensions should be rolled, not shaken, so proteins aren't destroyed
enemas administered for retention or evacuation
retention enemas used to deliver medication to the body in a manner that bypasses the stomach; ulcerative colitis can be treated with anti-inflammatory agents in this manner
Diastat a rectal diazepam gel for the immediate treatment of seizures
evacuation enemas administered from prefilled squeeze bottles;manufactured in a water base to be effective in less than 10 minutes; generally not recommended as a first line treatment for constipation
examples of enemas Fleet enema (sodium phosphate enema) and Rowasa (mesalamine enema)
Semisolids although they contain solids and liquids, they are normally intended for topical applications such as creams, lotions, ointments, gels, pastes, and suppositories
creams usually in a base that is part oil and part water for topical use; when emulsifier is added, water and oil remain combined; easily massaged into the skin without leaving an oil residue
examples of creams Cortaid (hydrocortisone cream 1%)
lotions thinner than creams because their base contains more water; penetrate well into skin without leaving on oil residue
examples of lotions hydrocortisone lotion 2.5%
ointments contain medication in a glycol or oil base, such as petroleum; cover the skin while repelling moisture; can be used topically or rectally; can be sterilized for the eye in ophthalmic use
examples of ointments Neosporin (bacitracin / neomycin / polymixin) and Protopic (tacrolimus ointment)
gels contain medication in a viscous (thick) liquid that easily penetrates the skin and does not leave a residue; i.e. sunscreens
examples of gels Orajel (benzocaine)
pastes contain a lesser amount of liquid base than do solids; are used for topical application and can absorb secretions, unlike other topical agents
examples of paste Desitin (zinc oxide paste)
suppositories used for rectal, vaginal, or urethral conditions for a localized effect (at the site of administration) or for systemic effect (throughout the body)
advantages of suppositories bypass the stomach if a patient is experiencing nausea and vomiting, provide a good relief of constipation with rectal suppositories, and can treat localized conditions such as yeast infections with vaginial suppositories
examples of suppositories Monistat 3 (miconazole vaginal suppository) and Dulcolax (bisacodyl suppository)
powders do not fit neatly into the category of semisolids; topical powders reduce wetness such as antifungal foot powders
examples of powders Desenex (miconazole powder) or Mycostatin (nystatin powder)
Created by: DbaileyC



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