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Biopsych FInal Exam

FInal Exam Biopsychology

QuestionAnswer
These units of heredity maintain their structural identity from one germination to the next. Genes
Mapping out the relationship between two shared bone structures across different species suggests there is this kind of biological explanation, Evolutionary
Because this disability is controlled by a recessive X- Linked Gene, it is more common in males than females Color Deficiency
Understanding how genes, nutrition, and experience work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of this kind of biological explanation of behavior. Ontogenetic
Theses two groups of individuals are particular useful in investigating the heritability of human behavior Twins and adopted children
This is the place in which neurons release their chemicals Junction between neurons
Depolarization is to ____ as hyper polarization is to ________ Excitation, Inhibition
This is the name for gaps in between the myelin sheath that helps speed up the transmission of signals in our nervous system Nodes of Ranvier
A concentration gradient is responsible for moving this ion out of our neurons when cell is at rest Potassium
This type of neuron sends messages equally well in all directions Local Neurons
Better not punch your classmates! This is part of the brain for knowing what behaviors are acceptable in social sittuations Prefrontal Cortex
Term used to describe a cluster of neurons located in the Central Nervous System Nucleus
In neurons, vesicles are tiny packets of the chemicals which are released by the presynaptic neuron Neurotransmittters
Sherrington first postulated the existence of the synapse through this kind of technique Behavioral Observation
Magnetoencephalograph, Electroencephalography, and Function response imaging all produce this kind of measure of the brain> Functional Response
If two voices differ in their frequency/pitch, this means they differ in this physical (non-perceptual) way. the number of sound waves per second?
Every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light. This is always true according to this law. the law of specific nerve energies
This is the visual pathway that is sensitive to the details of a shape parvocellular pathway
The sensory aspect of pain activates the THIS cortex, whereas the emotional aspect of pain activates the THIS cortex somatosensory and cingulate
Cutting this structure would result in a loss of motor control and sensation in the dermatome to which it connected. Spinal Nerve
This term is defined as the sex one identifies with and calls oneself Gender Identity
This condition occurs when a developing fetus’s adrenal glands release too little cortisol. CAH Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Genetics, prenatal stress, and the mother’s immune system have all been linked to this characteristic. Sexual Orientation
Testicular feminization is caused by this structural abnormality Lack of androgen receptors
The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in this brain region. Anterior hypothalamus
This part of the body begins developing about two weeks after conception and continues to change for the entire life of a human Central Nervous System (CNS)
Understanding how genes, nutrition, and expirence work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of an _____ Ontogenetic explanation
What does Functional behavior describe? Functional Behavior describes why a structure of behavior evolved the way it did
Estimate of the degree to which variation in a characteristic depends on genetic variations in a given population refers to Heritability
Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are Genes
Sex linked genes: genes on the chromosomes (X and Y)
Autosomal Genes All genes located on every other chromosomes
If one parent has the gene combination Aa and the other has a gene combination aa, than the child has : A 50% chance of having the gene combination Aa A 50% chance of having the gene combination aa
Which go the following is true of local neurons? A) They exchange information with distant neurons B) They abide by the all or none principle C) The change in membrane potential increases as it travels D) They have short dendrites and axons D) They have short dendrites and axons
Compared to ionotrophic effects, metabotropic effects are slower and longer- lasting
Depolarization A reduction of polarizationTOWARD 0mV and above across a neurons membrane. If strong enough results in an action potential
Hyper-polarization An increase of polarization AWAY from 0mV and below across a neuron's membrane resulting in Inhibition
A drug that produces excitement, alertness, elevated mood, and decreased fatigue is referred to as a Stimulant
What is the intensity of a sound wave called? amplitude
Humans localize how frequencies by____ differences and high frequency by _____ differences Phase, Loudness
Various types of _____ cells refine the input of ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movements, or other visual features. amacrine cells
What receptors are responsible for the perception of color? Cones
rods are to ___ as cones are to ________. periphery, fovea
Prosopagnosia refers to the _________ The inability to recognize faces, caused by damage to the fusiform gyrus
Horizontal Cells receive their input from______and they send out put to ______? Rods and Cones, Bipolar Cells
Magnocellular Cells Large cell bodies, evenly distributed throughout the retina, important for perception of motion
The ability to detect movement better than color in our peripheral vision is largely due to > Magnocellular neurons in our Periphery
Bipolar Cells Cells that first receive messages from the visual receptors
Pain, warmth, and cold are all detected by these kinds of receptors. Somatosensory
Opiates produce an effect similar to these naturally occurring neurotransmitters. endorphins
What is place theory ? Think Place = Pitch, States that the pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greater activity levels
Apex of the Cochlea Hears the lowest pitch sounds
Base of the Cochlea Hears the higher pitched sounds
What is auditory imagery often referred to as? A "map of sounds in the auditory cortex
How is sound reflected into the auditory canal? By what structure? By the Pinna
What is human perception of frequency known as> pitch
What does the frequency theory best explain in humans? Best explains a humans perception of low frequency tones
What two structures are involved in providing vestibular information to the brain? Semicircular Canals and Otolith Organs
Pain Receptors contain what kind of nerve endings> simple, bare neuron endings
What are the two distinct aspects of pain? Sensory and Emotional
What structure contains the post central gyrus (primary Somatosensory cortex)? Pariatal lobe
What structure relieves touch sensation from sense receptors. as well as musclewoman;e- stretch and joint receptors parietal lobes
What is the primary comical target for auditory information Temporal lobe
Tumors here can cause auditory hallucinations temporal lobe
contributes to the reception of movement and facial recgonition temporal lobe
main area in the brain for visual information occipital lobe
Contains the primary visual cortex occipital lobe
Contains the precentral cortex (motor cortex) Frontal lobe
specialized control of fine movement frontal lobe
Receives input from all the senses and contains the prefrontal cortex frontal lobe
All imaging techniques provide Functional Response Imaging expect for MRI
FMRI Measures oxygen consumption
MEG Measures Magnetic activity of. the cells
EEG Measures electrical activity
What are the five stages of Neural Development 1) Proliferation 2)Migration 3)Differentiation 4)Myelination 5)Synaptogenesis
Proliferation think prolife Creation of new nerve and glial cells
Migration involves movement of new cells throughout the brain and body
Differentiation Neurons take a certain shape to performa a certain function
Myelination The formation of the myelin sheath around a neurons axon
synaptogenesis the formation of synapses between neurons
Created by: jsloan01