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RTE 141 Final

QuestionAnswer
The removal of an electron from an atom is called ionization
Sievert unit of radiation to describe dose recieved by technologist. effective dose
Voltage is measured in kVp
Radiowaves, light, and x-rays are all examples of ____ energy electromagnetic
The energy of x-rays is ____ electromagnetic
The biggest source of mad made ionizing radiation exposure to the public is diagnostic x-rays
T or F: A compound is any quantity of one type of molecule True
The binding energies, or energy levels of an electron is represented by shells
When an atom has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons isotope
When atoms of various elements combine, they form molecules
an atom that loses or gains one or more electrons is an ion
The innermost electron shell K
The only difference between x-rays and gamma rays origin
What particle is the least penetrating form of ionizing radiation? alpha particles
The electrons in the outermost shell is equal to its group in the periodic table
Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass isotopes
two types of particulate radiation alpha and beta particles
X rays and gamma rays have an unlimited range of matter
The intensity of radiation ___ in ____ proportion to the square of the distance of the object from the source decreases, inverse
Photons with the highest frequency have the shortest wavelengths
The energy of a photon is _____ to its frequency directly proportional
Selecting 80 kVp on an x-ray control panel, produces energies ranging from 0; 80,000
smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic radiation photon
the rise and fall of a sine wave is called amplitude
The diagnostic range of x-ray energy is 69 kEv
The terms translucent and refraction are associated with the ____ spectrum electromagnetic
What happens to wavelength as frequency decreases it increases
Diagnostic range of x-ray energy 30-150 kVp
What is a source of direct current battery
What is the unit of electric potential Volt
What is ohms law I= V/R
What type of material can be made magnetic when placed in an external magnetic field ferromagnetic
The operating console contains circuits that are low voltage
The ___ filament circuit provides electrons for the xray tube current filament
The step up transformer increases voltage ____ times 500-1000
A full wave rectified, 3 phase unit provides an x ray beam at ___ per second 360 pulses
A single phase waveform has ___ ripple 100%
Thermionic emission at the filament creates a space charge
Localized pitting or cracking on the anode can occur from a single excessive exposure
The ___ circuit provides electrons for the x-ray tube current filament
The AEC terminates exposure when sufficient radiation reaches image receptor
When the radiographer selects kV on the control panel which device is adjusted Autotransformer
If the primary coil of a high voltage transformer is supplied by 220V and has 400 turns and the secondary coil has 100,000 turns, what is the voltage induced in the secondary coil 55 kV
What is the purpose to the falling load generator to keep anode cool. all of the above
Electrostatic force is _____ proportional of distance between charges inversely
The autotransformer has ____ winding coils one
Thermionic emission determines milliamperes
The smallest unit of electrical charge is electron
Electrification occurs through the movement of electrons
Electrostatic force is _____ proportional to the distance between charges and ____ proportional to the product of the charges Inversely, directly
A generator is a source of direct current T or F False
Alternating current is produced by a generator
the rotation of electrons on their axis is called electron spin
The force between magnetic poles is proportional to the ___ of the magnetic pole strengths divided by the ___ of the distance between them Product, square
Iron, nickle, and cobalt are all considered ___ materials ferromagnetic
T or F Positive electric charges in a circuit flow from positive to negative False
Electrostatic force is inversely related to distance columbs law
What creates a dipole electrons spin in one direction
an iron bar exposed to a strong magnetic field may become electromagnet
Gadolinium is useful in MRI because it has which magnetic property paramagnetic
Materials strongly attracted to magnets ferromagnetic
weakly repelled from both poles of magnetic field diamagnetic (water)
Weakly attracted to both poles paramagnetic
In a step down transformer the current on the primary side is ____ than the secondary side smaller
Allows current to flow in one direction only rectifier
A coiled current carrying helix solenoid
Smallest quantity of electromagnetic radiation sometimes called a quantum photon
Electrodynamics electric charges in motion
What is the voltage ripple of a 3 phase 12 pulse power 4%
What exposure timer is used in xray systems equipted with falling load generators mAs
What measures the voltage provided to the x ray imaging system and adjusts the voltage to 220V line compensator
The number of electrons emitted by the filament is determined by the ___ of the filament temperature
What is a release of electrons from a heated filament? thermionic emission
The filament transformer is a step down transformer
What makes up the external structure of the x ray tube supportive structure, protective housing, glass or metal enclosure
What provides the mechanical support protective housing
what is the positive side of the tube called anode
what is the negative side of the tube called cathode
The two parts of the cathode filament and focusing cup
boiling off of electrons is known as thermonic emission
What does thermionic emission cause to happen at the filament space charge effect
What is the source of x ray s in the tube the focal spot
what turns the rotating anode magnetic field
what is a rotating anode made of tungsten alloy
The ___ the angle, the greater the heel affect smaller
heat formula of a 3 phase 6 pulse x ray machine 1.41 x kVp x mA x
Anode has pits or cracks in it excessive temp during single exposure
Projectile electrons travel from cathode to anode
at 100 kVp ____% of the x ray beam is characteristic 15%
most of the heat generated at the target is due to outer shell excitation
interactions which result in the removal and replacement of a K shell electron produce ___ radiation characteristic
Most of the x rays produced at the target are brem
Brem x rays are produced by ___ at the target slowing electrons
Characteristic x rays are produced by released biding energy
A brem x ray is emitted from the conversion of kinetic energy
The ____ of an x ray beam is higher when the peak of the emission spectrum is further to the quality, right
An increase in mAs would ___ the ___ of the emission spectrum increase, amplitude only
an increase in kVp would ____ the _____ of the emission spectrum increase amplitude and position
Changes in ___ result in directly proportional changes in the amplitude of the emission spectrum mA and time
How does added filtration affect the emission spectrum reduced amplitude and shift to the right
What affects the size and position of the x-ray emission spectrum tube current, voltage, and material
____ x rays are emitted when an outer shell _____ fills and inner shell ____ characteristic, electron, void
Projectile electrons travel from cathode to anode
At 100 kVp ____ of the x ray beam is ____ and ___ is _____ 15% characteristic, 85% brem
ways and x ray can interact with matter coherent, compton, photoelectric, pair, photodisinigration
Below 10 keV what interaction occurs coherent
What 2 interactions matter to diagnostic radiology compton and photoelectric
The energy of compton scattered x ray is = to difference between energy of incident energy of ejected x ray
the wavelength of the scattered x ray is greater than that of the incident x ray compton scattering
outer shell interaction reduces its energy and ionizes the atom compton
in compton interaction, after incident x ray interacts, it continues in a different direction with ___ energy less
in photoelectric effect, the electron removed from the atom is called a photoelectron
what happens to the incident photon in the photoelectric effect gets absorbed, ejected
as mass density of absorber increases, what happens to compton scattering proportional increase
As x ray energy increases the chance of interaction decreases
X rays have very short wavelengths true
in coherent scattering the incident x ray interacts with a target atom causing it to become excited. Low energy cant ionize
The result of coherent scattering is a change in direction of the x ray without a change in energy
Coherent scattering, there is no energy transfer, therefore no ionization
coherent scattering is of little importance to diagnostic radiology
compton effect, the x ray continues in a what direction with how much energy different, less
The x rays emitted through the window or the x ray tube are called useful beam
x ray current is controlled by filament circuit
The filament is located on what side of the tube cathode
Melting point of tungsten 3400 degrees
T or F: Protons have no mass True
Attenuation is caused by absorption and scatter
operating consoles that contain circuits are low voltage
An example of negative contrast is air
Water is an example of diamagnetic
Standard x ray machines produce ___ mGya @ 70 kVp measured at 100 sid 50
Incident x rays interact with an atom with ionization during coherent scatter
Filter thickness is ___ when x ray intensity is ___ greater, lower
Electric potential applied to conductor produces electric current and magnetic field
HVL of x ray beam measurement of beam Intensity, quality, radiation - all the above
HVL is lowered by decrease in kVp
The quality of brem radiation increases proportionately with increased mAs
Energies below 40 keV, predominant x ray interaction is soft tissue and bone is photoelectric absorption
Tube rating charts show maximum exposure time
image contrast is affected by both kVp and beam quality
If the distance between the x-ray source and IR is ___ the IR will receive ____ the original dose doubled, 1/4th
An increase of 15% kVp = 100% increase in mAs
Gamma rays are produced in the nucleus of an atom
if 5% of the incident beam is transmitted through a body part, then 95% was attenuated
Distance between 2 magnets is ___ magnetic force is ___ divided by 2, increased by 4 times
Efficiency of x ray production increases as kVp increases
# of x rays in useful beam defines x ray quantity
Beam quality is affected by kVp and filtration
in photoelectric interaction, there is a complete absorption of incident x ray photon
Because of differential absorption about __ of the incident beam from the x ray contributes the the finished image .5%
Rotation of electrons on their axis is called electron spin
step down transformer is located in the filament circuit
at energies lower than 40 keV the x ray interation is compton scatter
Created by: zkimmes