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Chap 10 -bateman

Management -Ch.10 Motivation

Motivation Psychological process that directs (choice) and drives (intensity) attentional resources toward a specific behavior and its associated outcome
Performance Evaluation on your output. Ex. Behavior, output, performance, reward
Behavior Doing a job; continuing to work
Valence importance (a lot); the value an outcome holds for the person completing it
*If highly salient and has high valence… I attend to it
Reinforcers Positive consequences that motivate behavior
Organizational Behavior Modification (OB MOD) The application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings
Positive Reinforcement Applying a consequence that increases the likelihood of a person repeating the behavior that led to it
Negative Reinforcement Removing or withholding an undesirable consequence
Punishment Administering an aversive consequence; applying something negative
Extinction Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence; withholding something positive
Expectancy Theory A theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome (expectancy, instrumentality, valence)
Expectancy Employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals
Outcome A consequence a person receives for his or her performance
Instrumentality the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types
Alderfer ERG Theory A human needs theory developed by Alderfer postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously
McClelland Three needs most important for managers are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power
Extrinsic Rewards Rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person (ex: money)
Intrinsic Reward Reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself (ex: enjoyment)
Job Rotation Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
Job Enlargement Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
Job Enrichment Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying
Two-Factor Theory Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction
Hygiene Factors Characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision that can make people dissatisfied
Motivators Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
Equity Theory A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes/inputs
Procedural Justice How the resources were distributed; Using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was a fair as possible
Psychological Contract A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them
Distributive Justice What resources were distributed
Job Satisfaction A general attitude towards job that affects a person’s job. Not always positive or negative
Effort mind and emotions working together to put all you can for a behavior at the level you choose
Proximal close goal
Distal long distance goal
Self actualization becoming everything one can or is capable of being (top of need pyramid)
Ego independence, achievement, recognition, status, and self-esteem (2nd top of need pyramid)
Social friendship, belonging, and love ( 3rd on need pyramid)
Safety or security protection against threat and deprivation (4th on need pyramid)
Physiological food, water, sex and shelter (bottom of need pyramid)
Existence needs all material and physiological desires
Relatedness needs relationships with other people by sharing thoughts and feelings
Growth needs fully utilizing personal capacities and developing new capacities
Goal focuses your resources in what you want to achieve
Aspiration is attached to goals, and it is cognitive and rational
Learning goal motivation comes from the inside (intrinsic), I do it for myself, I control it
Behavioral goal If I do this I will be rewarded (intrinsic/extrinsic) I control it
Performance goal If I perform well I get a reward (extrinsic) I can’t control it
Hackman and Oldham Model well-designed jobs lead to high motivation, high-quality performance, high satisfaction, and low absenteeism and turnover
Hackman and Oldham job dimensions skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback
Fairness is view through equity, equality and need
Salient Relevant (matters)
Created by: pitufran
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